The analysis of the influence of lithium on wetting properties of Ag-Cu brazing alloys and the shear strength of stainless steel/braze/stainless steel joint was conducted. The brazing alloys of designations and composition according to ANSI/AWS A5.8: BAg-8a (71÷3 wt.% Ag, 0.25÷0.50 wt.% Li, Cu) and BAg-19 (92÷93 wt.% Ag, 0.15÷0.30 wt.% Li, Cu) and a braze alloy containing 70÷72 wt.% Ag, 0.6÷0.7 wt.% Li and Cu were subjected to the investigations. The wettability properties of the brazing silver alloys were examined in a spread test. The shear strength of joints were measured on the joints of stainless steel in the tensile test. The comparison of results showed a beneficial effect of lithium on the spreading properties and the wettability of braze alloys as well as the quality and shear strength of the brazed joints. The observed slag inclusions in the solid braze did not affect considerably the mechanical properties of the prepared joints because of the intensive deoxidation of the brazing surfaces of stainless steel elements.
W. Gąsior and A. Dębski
The solution calorimetric method was used for the measurement of the formation enthalpy of the binary FeTi and Fe2Ti intermetallic phases and of the FeNiTi2 phase from the region of the ternary B2 one.
The FeNi and FeNiTi2 phases were prepared by levitation melting and the Fe2Ti phase - by melting the metals in a glove-box under high purity argon. The alloys obtained were identified by the X-ray diffraction analysis. The structural study of the alloys with the composition equal to the FeTi and Fe2Ti phase confirmed the mentioned phases mainly in the samples. In the case of the ternary alloy of the composition of the FeNiTi2 phase, a slight amount of iron was also found. The obtained values of the formation enthalpy equal as follows: -27.2±1.3 kJ/mole of atoms, -22.5±1.4 kJ/mole of atoms and -34.2±1.3 kJ/mole of atoms for the Fe2Ti, FeTi and FeNiTi2 phase, respectively.
W. Gąsior, J. Pstruś and Z. Moser
The dilatometric and maximum bubble pressure methods were applied for the measurements of the density and surface tension of liquid (Ag-Sn)eut +Zn lead-free solders. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 515 to 1223 K for the alloys of the zinc concentration equaling 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the mole fraction. It was found that the temperature dependence of both the density and the surface tension could be thought as linear, so they were interpreted by straight line equations. The experimental data of the molar volume of the investigated alloys were described by the polynomial dependent on the composition and temperature.
Calculations of the surface tension by Butler’s equation were conducted and confronted with the experimental data. Some significant deviations between the experimental and the calculated surface tension were observed. They reached almost 40 mNm-1. The observed changes of the density and surface tension caused by the zinc addition to the Ag-Sn eutectic were discussed with the consideration of the thermodynamic properties and the influence of a small quantity of impurities in a protective gas atmosphere.
B. Onderka, A. Dębski and W. Gąsior
A thermodynamic description of the entire ternary Bi-In-Zn system was obtained by the CALPHAD modelling of the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase. The experimental data on the phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties published and complemented by the authors’ own experiments were taken into account. In order to verify the phase equilibria in the Bi-In-Zn system, 15 different samples were studied in the temperature range of 300-900 K by the DTA technique during heating and cooling cycles. Coexisting phases and their composition were analyzed by the SEM and EDX techniques for 9 distinct samples after their thermal equilibration at 373 K and 473 K.
Assessment and selected phase equilibrium calculations were performed with ThermoCalc and Pandat softwares, and compared with experimental data. The obtained results reproduce well the experimental data on both the phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties in the optimized system.
A. Dębski, M. H. Braga and W. Gąsior
The standard enthalpy of formation of the B78Li22 alloy was measured with the use of the water reaction calorimetric method at 25 °C (298 K). An X-ray diffraction study of the prepared sample was conducted. The obtained diffraction pattern was different from the patterns for the B3Li and B14Li3 phases. The standard enthalpy of formation obtained for the B78Li22 alloy was -39.0 ± 0.7 kJ/mole of atoms. This value corresponds well with the formation enthalpies of the phases from the boron-lithium system. Theoretical calculations of the standard enthalpy of formation were conducted for the B78Li22 alloy and the phases from B-Li system, which were investigated earlier. A discussion of the deviations observed between both sets of data (experimental and calculated) was performed. Additionally, DTA studies were performed for 14 alloys of the concentrations from 40 to 100 at. % of Li.
W. Gąsior, P. Fima and Z. Moser
Modeling of the Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Fe-Ni and Fe-Co Alloys From the Surface Tension Data
Recently proposed method of modeling of thermodynamic properties of liquid binary alloys from their surface tension data is described. The method utilizes Melford and Hoar equation, relating surface tension with excess Gibbs free energy, combined with new description of the monatomic surface layer and β parameter. The method is tested on Fe-Ni and Fe-Co alloys and the obtained results show very good agreement with experimental thermodynamic data of other authors. The model allows also to calculate the surface tension from thermodynamic data, and it gives better agreement with experimental results than those modeled with the use of Butler equation and traditionally defined monatomic surface layer and β = 0.83.
W. Gąsior, A. Dębski and R. Major
The formation enthalpy of the BLi (B48Li52) intermetallic phase was measured with the use of the water reaction and the direct reaction calorimetric method. The phase was prepared of weighed amounts of B and Li in a glove-box filled with high purity argon. The BLi phase was confirmed with using the X-ray diffraction investigations. The experiments were carried out with the use of a water reaction calorimeter (water reaction calorimetric technique) at 25°C (298 K) in air, as well as a direct reaction calorimeter at 752°C in high purity argon. The formation enthalpy value obtained for the BLi phase in the case of the water reaction calorimetric method equaled -30.3±2.2 kJ/mole of atoms and in the case of the direct synthesis technique - 29.4±2.0 kJ/mole of atoms.
A. Debski, R. Debski and W. Gasior
This paper presents a new version of the Entall database of the thermodynamic properties of metals and their alloys. The changes are related to the thermodynamic data of new binary and ternary systems as well as the integration of the database with an application for the modeling of the formation enthalpies of intermetallic phases with the use of the Miedema model. Using this tool, calculations of the enthalpies of formation of 38 intermetallic phases from 12 binary systems were performed and a comparative analysis conducted. The results of the analysis clearly showed a weak correlation between the model and experimental data. To improve this correlation, an intermediate method of proportional change was proposed, on the basis of the measurement of the enthalpy of formation for one of the phases. The values for the other phases obtained from this indirect method should not deviate much from the experimental ones provided that before the measurements (dissolving or pulping) or after them (direct synthesis), the phase being examined should undergo structural tests, in order to confirm its dominating amount in the samples.
A. Zajaczkowski, W. Gasior and B. Onderka
The Knudsen effusion method was used for measurements of mass loss rate of liquid Bi-In-Sn-Zn alloys, in the temperature range from 572 to 768 K. The studies were carried out for the alloys with the ratio of Bi:In:Sn equal 2:6:2, 2:2:6 and 8:1:1. The obtained results were used for the calculation of zinc vapour pressure over liquid Bi-In-Sn-Zn alloys and next the activity of zinc in the Bi-In-Sn-Zn liquid phase. It was found that for the investigated alloys the activity of zinc shows the considerable positive deviation from the Raoult’s law.
A. Dębski, B. Onderka, W. Gąsior and T. Gancarz
With the use of the differential thermal analysis (DTA), studies of the phase transitions were conducted for 90 of alloys from the quaternary Bi-In-Sn-Zn system and for the constant ratio of Bi:In and Bi:Sn. The studies were conducted for the alloys prepared from the purity metals (Bi, In, Sn, Zn = 99.999 mas. %) by way of melting in a graphite crucible in a glove-box filled with Ar, in which the impurities level was less than 0.1 ppm. After melting and thorough mixing, the liquid alloys were poured out into a graphite test mold. The phase transition temperature data obtained from the DTA investigations were next confronted with those determined from the calculations based on the binary and ternary optimized thermodynamic parameters available in the literature. It was found that the experimental and the calculated phase transition temperatures were in good agreement.