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S. Gil, M. Rozpondek and W. Bialik

Abstract

Investigations on operational parameters of afterburning chambers included in metallurgical thermal equipment have been presented. The effects of temperature and modernization within the firing system on concentrations of nitrogen oxides and carbon oxide have been analysed. To ensure effective afterburning of gases generated during technological processes and minimisation of CO levels, the temperature in the afterburning chamber should be elevated to approximately 1053-1973 K with evenly distributed temperature within the flame. This may lead to slightly higher (by about 20 mg/m3 n ) NOx concentrations.

Open access

B. Machulec and W. Bialik

Based on the minimum Gibbs Free Enthalpy algorithm (FEM), model of the ferrosilicon smelting process has been presented. It is a system of two closed isothermal reactors: an upper one with a lower temperature T1, and a lower one with a higher temperature T2. Between the reactors and the environment as well as between the reactors inside the system, a periodical exchange of mass occurs at the moments when the equilibrium state is reached. The condensed products of chemical reactions move from the top to the bottom, and the gas phase components move in the opposite direction. It can be assumed that in the model, the Reactor 1 corresponds to the charge zone of submerged arc furnace where heat is released as a result of resistive heating, and the Reactor 2 corresponds to the zones of the furnace where heat is produced by electric arc. Using the model, a series of calculations was performed for the Fe-Si-O-C system and was determined the influence of temperatures T1, T2 on the process. The calculation results show a good agreement model with the real ferrosilicon process. It allows for the determination of the effects of temperature conditions in charge zones and arc zones of the ferrosilicon furnace on the carbothermic silica reduction process. This allows for an explanation of many characteristic states in the ferrosilicon smelting process.

Open access

B. Machulec, S. Gil and W. Bialik

Abstract

In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c 3 (Westly) was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J 1 (Jaccard) was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

Open access

S. Gil, W. Bialik, M. Saternus and A. Fornalczyk

Every new car should be equipped with the catalyst, which limits the amount of harmful chemical compounds such as NOx, CH and CO emitted to the air. Auto catalyst consists of the ceramic or metallic carrier, on which is the layer with Platinum Group Metals playing catalytic role. There are many methods using for recovery those valuable metals from spent auto catalyst, however evry of those methods have some limitations. Proces described in the article is the modified method of metal collector, which used magnetohydrodynamic pump. Rotary electromagnetic field generates in the liquid metal rotary current, which as a consequence washing out the PGM metals from the ceramic carriers. Considering the possibilities of commercialization of the described method, the energy balance was made. From that balance the energetic efficiency of the unit was determined and the analysis of the temperature distribution was shown thermographycally.