Syed W. Ahmad, Farhan Javed, Sajjad Ahmad, Muhammad Akram and Abdur Rehman
Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM) [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v)] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM), an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD) consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.
Functional diversity and detritus soil food web of soil inhabiting nematodes in natural woodland dominated by Acacia nilotica L. was studied. Functional diversity was studied in terms of trophic groups assessed by Trophic diversity index (TDI) and Shannon-Weaver index (H′), while food web was diagnosed by channel index (CI). The plant parasitic channel was determined by plant parasitic index (PPI). The stability of the soil ecosystem was measured in terms of maturity index (MI), structure index (SI) and enrichment index (EI). Shannon-Weaver index of the area was recorded as 2.1 ± 0.3 while trophic diversity index 2.6 ± 0.7, maturity index (MI) 3.1 ± 0.2, channel index 62.4 ± 28.1 and structure and enrichment indices 68.1 ± 18.5 and 15.4 ± 13.7 respectively. A high degree of positive correlation was recorded between population of dorylaims and MI while some degree of negative correlation existed between population of plant parasitic nematodes and MI. Population of other nematodes showed a positive correlation with SI and EI. The faunal profile was found to be tilted towards quadrat C giving the idea of relatively undisturbed ecosystem with moderate enrichment and fungal decomposition channel.
Caveonchus siddiqii n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from both India and Japan. It is characterized by having a medium sized body (L= 0.86 - 1.12 mm); labial disc present; amphideal fovea flask-shaped; lip region cap-like, offset by slight constriction; odontostyle 8 - 9 μm, odontophore 10 - 12 μm; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the saccate basal bulb, occupying about 16 - 21 % of total neck length; female genital system mono-opisthodelphic; anterior genital branch 70 - 100 μm or 1.9 - 2.8 times the midbody diameter long; tail short, rounded, hemispheroid, 0.5 - 0.7 anal body diameter long; spicules 30 - 38 μm long; and three spaced ventromedian supplements. Its relationship with all the known species of the genus is discussed. A diagnostic compendium and a key to identification of the species is also provided.
Two new species of the genus Coomansinema Ahmad and Jairajpuri, 1989 are described and illustrated. C. japonicum n. sp. is characterized by having medium size body (L= 1.40 – 1.45 mm); lip region truncate with completely amalgamated lips; amphideal fovea goblet – shaped; 16 – 20 μm long odontostyle; 23 – 25 μm long odontophore; comparatively anterior position of the second pair of pharyngeal glands; amphidelphic female genital system; longitudinal vulva; males with 48 – 54 μm long spicules; 7 – 8 spaced ventromedian supplements and tail long filiform in female and short conoid in male. C. longicaudatum n. sp. is characterized by having medium size body (L= 1.1 – 1.3 mm); lip region truncate, continuous with completely amalgamated lips; amphideal fovea cup – shaped; 16 – 17 μm long odontostyle; 19 – 20 μm long odontophore; comparatively anterior position of the second pair of pharyngeal glands; amphidelphic female genital system; transverse vulva, intestinal – prerectum junction with a tongue – like structure and 210 – 269 μm long filiform tail. A key to its seven valid species is provided.
T. Shah, A.Z. Khan, M. Numan, W. Ahmad, M. Zahoor, M. Ullah and A. Jalal
Water stress experienced by a wheat crop during growth is recognized to have accumulative effect stated as a decline in total biomass over well water potential. The yield and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Pirsabak-2013 and Atta Habib) to foliar feeding of 2% potassium (K) at three various growth phases (Zadoks GS-22, Zadoks GS-60 and Zadoks GS-73) was explored under water restricted environment in a wire house trial at the Agriculture Research Station, Harichand, Charsadda. The target was to find out the preeminent K application stage for enhancement in the drought tolerance potential. Drought stress was generated by suppression of irrigation at the three growth phases and then K was sprayed with the carboxymethyl cellulose as a sticking agent, however Tween-20 was used as a surfactant for foliar spray. Data about several agronomic characters (plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant) of crop were documented via standard techniques. Moreover, at maturity, aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus, K, sodium and calcium uptakes by the crop were determined. The results point out that drought stress at all three acute growth phases unfavorably affected plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and nutrient uptake of the wheat plant. The exogenous K application under drought stress at all three acute growth phases boosted tolerance of wheat by decreasing noxious nutrient’s uptake and augmenting the yield and yield characters. In this concerns, both varieties exposed undeviating behavior. Extreme enhancement in all the documented yield parameters and nutrients uptake was attained when K was practiced at grain filling stage of both varieties.
M.A. Sarwar, M.N. Khalil-Ur-Rehman, H.M.R. Javeed, W. Ahmad, M.A. Shehzad, S. Iqbal and H.T. Abbas
An experiment to evaluate comparative performance of various sunflower hybrids for yield and its related attributes was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during autumn 2008. Twelve sunflower hybrids, i.e. G-101 (H1), DK-4040 (H2), SF-187 (H3), S-278 (H4), Hysun-33 (H5), FH-37 (H6), Ausigold-61 (H7), Ausigold-62 (H8), FSS-50 (H9), NX- 00989 (H10), NX-00997 (H11) and XIYU-12 (H12) were included in the trail. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD), having three replicates with plot size of 5m x 3m. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant differences for all the parameters. It was observed that Hysun-33 showed greater plant height (148.47 cm) and achene per head (682.70) than all other hybrids, however in case of yield (3891.0 kg ha-1) and other related traits such as number of plants m-2, leaf area index, head diameter and 1000-achene weight SF-187 displayed better performance by recording values (6.87), (4.33), (18.62) and (49.11g), respectively, following Hysun-33 for most of the traits. From the results of experiment it can be concluded that the hybrids SF-187 and Hysun-33 showed high productivity and are best adapted to the climatic conditions of Faisalabad.