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  • Author: Włodzimierz Wójcicki x
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Religious Doctrines Versus Economics in the Antiquity and the Middle Ages

Abstract

Summary Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the participation of religious ideas in shaping ethical attitudes in business. Its purpose is to indicate the need to consolidate ethical principles in economics with the use of various possibilities of social persuasion. Materials and methods: The research was based on literature studies, including religious, philosophical and historical literature. In particular, the method of induction was employed - from rules to conclusions. Attention was paid to the considerations of the method itself. Results: The development of research on the method required the recognition of the role of reason - autonomous with respect to faith. Findings of St. Thomas Aquinas (distinction between act and possibility, forms and matter, recognition of the causal linkage between events, negation of the dual truth about the same event) and W. Ockham (entities are not to be multiplied without necessity) are still valid today. Conclusions: Religious ideas support economic activity by propagating ethical norms of behaviour. This, in turn, evokes the view of J.M. Keynes about the important role of ideas as such. The significance of the Bible goes far beyond religious aspects.

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Protoeconomics - Elements of Economics in Antiquity

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the emergence and shaping of basic economic issues since the dawn of human economic activity. Contemporary views on important economic issues have their roots in antiquity. The shaping of concepts such as money, interest, contract, credit as a part of the law, began a long time ago and exerted an influence on the way they are understood today.

Materials and methods: The basis for the considerations is the study of literature on the history of the development of economics and the science of management in economic, philosophical and ethical aspects. The work has shown the non-linear nature of the development of new phenomena emerging in volatile political, technical, religious and moral conditions, which are largely spontaneous, and a reciprocal overlap of various fields of knowledge in a general and individual sense. Particular discoverers were found to present a wide spectrum of interests.

Results: Historically, the development of economic knowledge began with the issues from the border of economics and management, from microeconomics (household) to macroeconomics (money); little information concerns large undertakings such as irrigation systems, pyramids or waging wars.

Conclusions: Generally speaking - monarchs’ edicts came before the deliberations of thinkers, concrete reasoning came before abstract considerations.

Open access