Summary Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the participation of religious ideas in shaping ethical attitudes in business. Its purpose is to indicate the need to consolidate ethical principles in economics with the use of various possibilities of social persuasion. Materials and methods: The research was based on literature studies, including religious, philosophical and historical literature. In particular, the method of induction was employed - from rules to conclusions. Attention was paid to the considerations of the method itself. Results: The development of research on the method required the recognition of the role of reason - autonomous with respect to faith. Findings of St. Thomas Aquinas (distinction between act and possibility, forms and matter, recognition of the causal linkage between events, negation of the dual truth about the same event) and W. Ockham (entities are not to be multiplied without necessity) are still valid today. Conclusions: Religious ideas support economic activity by propagating ethical norms of behaviour. This, in turn, evokes the view of J.M. Keynes about the important role of ideas as such. The significance of the Bible goes far beyond religious aspects.
Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the emergence and shaping of basic economic issues since the dawn of human economic activity. Contemporary views on important economic issues have their roots in antiquity. The shaping of concepts such as money, interest, contract, credit as a part of the law, began a long time ago and exerted an influence on the way they are understood today.
Materials and methods: The basis for the considerations is the study of literature on the history of the development of economics and the science of management in economic, philosophical and ethical aspects. The work has shown the non-linear nature of the development of new phenomena emerging in volatile political, technical, religious and moral conditions, which are largely spontaneous, and a reciprocal overlap of various fields of knowledge in a general and individual sense. Particular discoverers were found to present a wide spectrum of interests.
Results: Historically, the development of economic knowledge began with the issues from the border of economics and management, from microeconomics (household) to macroeconomics (money); little information concerns large undertakings such as irrigation systems, pyramids or waging wars.
Conclusions: Generally speaking - monarchs’ edicts came before the deliberations of thinkers, concrete reasoning came before abstract considerations.
Subject and purpose of work: The thesis presents an overview of the economic issues which existed in the European Middle Ages and modern times, prior to establishing classical economics.
Materials and methods: The thesis was prepared based on the literature review which included scientific publications and websites devoted to the economy, as well as to social and cultural changes. During the Middle Ages, the mere survival was no longer satisfactory for humans; the times saw the accumulation of wealth, which turned out to be a prerequisite for participation in social life.
Results: The initial intellectual narrative was dominated by canonists who studied the laws emerging from religious doctrines, gradually shifting their focus to philosophy, emphasizing the importance of research methods based on reason. Many universal ideas were introduced at the time.
Conclusions: a) The focus on the method used as a research tool accelerated the emergence of particular areas of scientific studies; b) Christianity constituted the cultural core in the medieval period;c) Theology, in conjunction with philosophy, constituted the source allowing for the emergence of social sciences.
The economic forum currently sees the postulate of a multi-dimensional analysis of economic issues, as exemplified by behavioural and institutional economics, cliometrics, wikinomics and others – taking into consideration of the achievements of cultural anthropology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, the history of economics, as well as selected exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. The redistribution economics, the relationship between capital and labour, the issues of the precariat, guaranteed minimum income for each citizen – both conditional and unconditional, which is a new idea for economy and the society – become more and more apparent in the aforementioned areas. The idea stems from the criticism of neoliberalism, and it interferes with the system of values shaped under capitalism, the role of the welfare state, the welfare system from the perspective of institutions and beneficiaries, who would replace their current privileges with inalienable rights. The author recommends unconditional minimum income upon providing a characteristic of a wide scope of postulated solutions, implemented on an experimental scale and applied in the practice of social policy. The monograph, while constituting the author’s moderate manifesto, provides a wide – in terms of time, authors and trends in economy – review of the standpoints on the participation in the national income.