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  • Author: Włodzimierz Starosta x
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Abstract

The existence of a human body is conditioned by: food, sleep, respiration. Without air man can live approximately 4 minutes. A longer break in access of oxygen to the brain results in irreversible changes of its functioning. Majority of adults cannot breathe economically and rhythmically. If respiration has such importance for the normal life of a man it should constitute a significant part of educational system. Only in few national cultures, including Asia (e.g. in Japan and China) the ability to breathe was made into an art. There, this art is subject to special care throughout many years of life of a person and is an essential component of mental hygiene. Respiration has particular importance while practicing physical exercise. The correct combination of respiration rhythm and movement is a prerequisite to remain healthy and to keep the ability to work, as well as to achieve high results in sport. Scarce information about this important issue could be found in some handbooks concerning health maintenance, but they were not found in the theory of: movement teaching, recreation, anthropokinesiology. It was a little number of papers publish about this very important problem [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. The issue of rational respiration was the subject of particular interest of scientists several years ago, but recently it has become only marginal. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to: 1. Study the literature connected with respiration and movement rhythm. 2. To define which phase of respiration: expiration or inspiration is more important in different sport exercises. 3. Elaboration a classification of kind respiration phase and different sports. 4. Methods for creating the art of rational respiration. 5. Relation of rational respiration rhythm to endurance.

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymmetry of spinal segment mobility in canoeists. Moreover, the relationship between this parameter and racing speed was analyzed. The study included 18 canoeists with a mean age of 16.4 years. Mobility of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, in sagittal, coronal and transverse planes, was measured with the aid of a tensometric electrogoniometer. The racing speed was based on results achieved during the qualifying competition for the Polish national team. Spinal mobility was measured within two days after the competition. Significant associations were observed between average racing speed and the asymmetry coefficients of the cervical (r=-0.52; p=0.03) and lumbar spinal flexure in the coronal plane (r=0.57; p=0.01). The extent of the asymmetry of the cervical spine flexure in the coronal plane should possibly be reduced, because such asymmetry exerts a negative effect on racing speed. In contrast, canoeist’s training should be oriented towards increasing the asymmetry of the lumbar spine flexure in the coronal plane. However, one should keep in mind that such an approach, although favorable in terms of race performance, could negatively affect the canoeist’s health.