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Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Włodzimierz Krzesiński and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Effect of Temperature on the Yield and Quality of Broccoli Heads

The effect of temperature on the yield and quality of broccoli heads was determined. The study involved three cultivars: Cruiser, Skiff and Fiesta. The seedlings were planted on five different dates in 1995 and 1996, nine in 1997 and eight in 1998. The length of time from planting to the first harvest for all the 27 cultivation periods was divided into three equal parts determining in this way three phases of growth. The time of harvest was defined as the fourth phase. Temperatures on a scale from 0°C to 40°C were divided into five-degree ranges. Then, for the four growth phases, correlations were determined between the number of hours at a temperature in the five-degree ranges and the total yield, the percentage of loose heads and the percentages of heads with uneven surface or non-uniform buds.

The length of time at a temperature in the range of 15-25°C during the first growth phase after planting and the phase preceding harvest had the greatest influence on total yield. Longer times at temperatures above 20°C contributed to smaller yields. The longer was the length of time at a temperature ranging from 20 to 25°C during the phase preceding harvest and at a temperature ranging from 5 to 15°C during harvest, the lower the percentage of heads with uneven surface was observed. Longer periods with temperatures above 20°C at harvest time contributed to the loosening of heads.

Open access

Tomasz Kleiber, Anna Golcz and Włodzimierz Krzesiński

Effect of Magnesium Nutrition of Onion (Allium cepa L.). Part I. Yielding and Nutrient Status

Magnesium (Mg) serves specific physiological functions in plants, as it participates in 250÷400 processes and may not be replaced by other elements, even those exhibiting similar physicochemical properties, such as Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+. The aim of the conducted studies was to optimize magnesium nutrition of onion (Allium cepa L.), through the evaluation of yielding of plants, and to determine its effect on contents of the following elements in leaves and bulbs: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Magnesium was applied in the quick-acting form, MgSO4·7H2O, based on the chemical analyses of soil, in doses corresponding to 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Mg·dm-3 soil. The other nutrients were supplemented to standard levels recommended for the cultivation of onion, amounting to (in mg·dm-3 soil) 150 N, 80 P and 200 K. Magnesium nutrition was found to have a positive effect on yielding of onion and its quality. Significantly the highest total yield (4.85 kg·m-2) and merchantable yield (4.78 kg·m-2) were obtained when applying Mg-100, which amounted to an increase by 38% and 45% in comparison with the control combination. Plant nutrition with magnesium in case of leaves significantly affected an improvement of their nutrient status for nitrogen, deterioration of calcium nutrition, while in case of leaves and bulbs that of potassium. Analyzed levels of magnesium nutrition had a significant effect on nutrient status of leaves and bulbs for this nutrient. Leaves accumulated more nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnesium than bulbs. Controlled magnesium nutrition of plants is an effective method of biofortification of onion with this nutrient.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Correlations Between Asparagus Crop and the Year of Cropping, Day of Harvest, Sugar Contents in Storage Roots and Spears and Air Temperature

The study, carried out at the "Marcelin" Experimental Station in Poznan during harvest seasons 2000-2002, was focused on the determination of the correlation between daily yield of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and soluble sugar contents in spears and storage roots, temperature, the year of cropping and day of harvest.

A positive correlation between daily yield and the year of harvest, daily fructose content in storage roots and spears, sucrose content in spears and temperature was documented, in contrast to the negative correlation with glucose and sucrose contents in roots, glucose content in spears and daily yield.

Open access

Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Jerzy Stachowiak, Monika Gąsecka and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Sugar Content in Spears Versus Asparagus Yielding

This research was focused on determination of the correlation between soluble sugar content in green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears and yield. In 2000-2002, green spears of the cultivar 'Thielim' were cut every day from the end of April to the middle of June. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose content was determined every 10-14 days by means of an HPLC method. The content of fructose was not correlated but the ratio of fructose to glucose content was positively correlated with the yield (r=0.92). When the ratio of fructose to glucose content in spears increased by 0.13, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. Content of glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar were negatively correlated with yield (r = -0.76 r = -0.77 and -0.79, respectively). When glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar content in spears decreased by 0.29 mg·g-1, 0.20 mg·g-1 and 0.85 mg·g-1, respectively, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. During the first twenty days of harvest the calculated amount of soluble sugar accumulated in harvested spears was correlated with the yield in the remaining harvest period as well as in the whole harvest season. The effect of temperature and solar radiation on the yield and sugar content in spears is discussed in the paper.

Open access

Mikołaj Knaflewski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Monika Gąsecka and Jerzy Stachowiak

Yielding of Asparagus Depending on Harvest Ending Date

The field experiment focused on the determination of yielding of asparagus cv. ‘Thielim’ in relation to harvest duration: traditional (until June 20th), shortened (June 10th) and prolonged (30th June) harvests. The variation in harvest ending dates did not have a significant influence on the total, marketable and non-marketable yields as well as on the crown weight and the number of storage roots. However, the extension of harvest time until June 30th resulted in an increase in the number of spears in the total and marketable yields, accompanied by a decrease in their diameter. Also prolonging harvest affected negatively the summer stalk size. During harvest until June 10th asparagus plants probably did not use their full yielding potential, because of too short harvest time. It resulted in increased height, weight, light absorption of summer stalks, leaf area index (LAI) and the total of cross-section areas of summer stalks (PPPA) with no significant differences in yield.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Changes in Glucose, Fructose and Sucrose Contents in Storage Roots of Asparagus During Vegetation Period

The objective of the field experiment conducted during 2000-2002 was to determine changes in glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) cv. ‘Thielim’ during vegetation period. The aim of the study was also to estimate the correlation between yield and the content of carbohydrates. Sum of glucose, fructose and sucrose contents (GFS) and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus decreased at the beginning and increased at the end of harvest. Generally glucose and fructose for carbohydrate contents increased, while that of sucrose decreased. A possitive correlation was observed for sucrose and GFS between asparagus spears and storage roots (r=0.821 and r=0.641, respectively). A negative correlation between the yield of spears and glucose, sucrose and GFS contents in storage roots was found (r=0.595, r=0.624, r=0.794, respectively). Positive correlations were found between total yield during harvest and year of cropping, average GFS content in storage roots during harvest, sum of radiation during harvest, while negative correlation between total yield and sum of average daily air temperature during harvest was found.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Szymon Buchowski, Anna Zaworska, Teresa Kotlińska and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Variability of Economic Traits of 28 Cultivars of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

The research which aim was to characterise variability of economic traits of 28 asparagus cultivars was carried out in the Marcelin Experiment Station in the years 2004-2008. Variability of total and marketable yields, the mean weight of green spears as well as plant survival of all the 28 cultivars and separately of nine German and Dutch cultivars was evaluated. In addition, variability between harvest years of individual cultivars for total and marketable yields, mean spear weight in five and spear thickness in three selected harvest years was characterised.

Variability between cultivars was found greater with respect to marketable and total yields expressed in the weight of harvested spears and smaller with respect to mean spear weight and total yield expressed in the number of harvested spears. Less productive cultivars exhibited the least consistent yields between individual harvest years and the worst plant survival. Higher yield consistency, mean spear weight and plant survival were observed in the group of German and Dutch cultivars.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski, Jolanta Lisiecka, Tomasz Spiżewski and Barbara Frąszczak


Three-year studies on the influence of temperature on vegetative growth and growth of broccoli heads (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Fiesta) were carried out at the Experimental Station “Marcelin” of Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poland. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree, number and area of leaves as well as head diameter was estimated. Likewise relationship between number and area of leaves and head diameter was established. The correlations were described using linear, curvilinear and segment linear regression. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree and number of leaves was linear, whereas the correlation between temperature and area of leaves and head diameter was curves function. On the basis of segment linear regression it was found that in the period when slow growth of heads was observed (the size of up to about 1.5 cm), the area of leaves increased the fastest. It occurred between the 24th and 27th day after planting. The fastest growth of broccoli heads was noted, when the plant had about 18 leaves and area 4900 cm2. In the period of rapid head growth, the increase of sum temperature of 100 day-degree resulted in head diameter increase by 3.5 cm.

Open access

Mikołaj Knaflewski, Alina Kałużewicz, Wenjing Chen, Anna Zaworska and Włodzimierz Krzesiński


Green spear yield of 16 asparagus cultivars originating from six countries was assessed from 2011 to 2013. There were considerable differences in total, marketable and early yields between the cultivars. The quality of harvested spears also varied remarkably. On average, the highest mean total and marketable yields from 3 years of investigation came from Dutch cultivars ‘Gijnlim’ and ‘Cumulus’ and German cv. ‘Mondeo’. The lowest yields were found in New Zealand cultivars ‘Pacific Challenger’ and ‘Pacific 2000’. The greatest mean marketable spear weight was recorded for ‘Cumulus’, whereas the smallest spear weight was obtained from ‘Pacific 2000’, ‘H666’ and ‘NJ 953’. Cultivars ‘Gijnlim’, ‘Cumulus’ and ‘Mondeo’ produced the highest early yields, while ‘Pacific 2000’ and ‘Pacific Challenger’ produced the lowest.

In order to determine the dependence between summer stalks size of tested cultivars in the preceding year and their yields in the following year, regression equations and their correlation coefficients were estimated. The size of summer stalks was expressed as plant growth index, which was the multiplication of height and total cross-sectional area of summer stalks. There was a significant and positive correlation between plant growth index of tested cultivars and their yields in the next vegetation period. The correlation coefficients between these two parameters amounted to 0.62 and 0.68 in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, respectively

Open access

Jean Diatta, Edward Fojcik, Leszek Drobek, Tomasz Spiżewski and Włodzimierz Krzesiński


The study compared coal fly and bottom ashes for their ability to inactivate metals and lead to soil remediation. Soil was artificially contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at five degrees. Next, both ashes were added at five rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% and all treatments incubated. Data showed that for moderately contaminated soils, ash rates of 0.5 - 1.0% were efficient from 40 to 70% for Zn and Cd, and raised markedly to between 70 and 93% for Cu and Pb. For extremely contaminated soils, the rates of ashes at 1.0, 1.5 and 2% were much more efficient (60 - 80%). The use of fly and bottom ashes for metal inactivation and soil remediation should give greater consideration to the effect of pH and the type of heavy metals than the content of SiO2and Al2O3. Fly ash displayed superior inactivation and remediation effects to the bottom ash.