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Włodzimierz Janke

Abstract

In the description of small-signal transmittances of switch-mode power converters several characteristic frequencies are usually used, corresponding to poles and zeros of transmittances. The knowledge of these frequencies is important in the design of control circuits for converters and usually are assumed to be constant for a given power stage of a converter. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of converter primary parameters and load conductance on characteristic frequencies. Analytical derivations and numerical calculations are performed for an ideal and non-ideal BUCK converter working in continuous or discontinuous conduction mode.

Open access

Włodzimierz Janke

Abstract

Small-signal transmittances: input-to-output and control-to-output of BUCK converter power stage working in CCM or DCM mode are discussed. Ideal converter case and converter with parasitic resistances are considered separately. Derivations of small-signal transmittances, based on different approaches to finding the converter averaged models, are presented and the results are compared. Apart from theoretical considerations, some results of numerical calculations are presented.

Open access

W. Janke

Abstract

Large-signal and small-signal averaged models of basic switch-mode DC-DC power converters: BUCK (step-down) and BOOST (step-up) are presented. Models are derived with the separation of variables approach and have the form of equivalent circuits, suitable for a circuit simulation. Apart from equivalent circuits, small-signal transmittances of converters for CCM and DCM modes are discussed. Parasitic resistances of all components of converters are taken into account. A few examples of simulations and measurement results of selected converter characteristics are also presented. It is shown, that neglecting parasitic resistances (often met in works of other authors) may lead to serious errors in an averaged description of converters.

Open access

Włodzimierz Janke and Marcin Walczak

Abstract

Characteristic frequencies corresponding to poles and zeros of small-signal control-to-output transfer functions of popular DC-DC converters (BUCK and BOOST) are analyzed. The main attention is paid to influence of load conductance on the characteristic frequencies for converters working in continuous conduction mode (CCM) as well as in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Parasitic resistances of all converter components are included in calculations. In addition the improved description of CCM-DCM boundary is presented. The calculations are verified experimentally and good consistency of the results is observed.

Open access

W. Janke and M. Walczak

Abstract

The object of this paper is a step-down (BUCK) power converter working in the continuous conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Two types of transient states in a converter have been analyzed and observed experimentally: slow transients, described by averaged models of a converter and fast transients, in the course of a single switching period. The averaged models of converter working in CCM, presented in various sources are similar, with some differences concerning only the description of parasitic effects. The averaged models for DCM depend on the adopted modeling method. Models obtained by the switch averaging approach are second-order models (containing two reactive elements in equivalent circuit representation). Models obtained by the separation of variables approach are first-order models. The experimental results given in this paper show the first-order type of transients. Another group of experiments concern fast transients in the course of a single switching period. The oscillations of inductor voltage in the part of a switching period are observed for DCM.

Open access

W. Janke and M. Walczak

Abstract

Small-signal input characteristics of BUCK and BOOST DC-DC power converters in continuous conduction and discontinuous conduction mode have been presented. Special attention is paid to characteristics in discontinuous conduction mode. The input characteristics are derived from the general form of averaged models of converters. The frequency dependence of input admittance and other input characteristics has been observed in a relatively low-frequency range. The analytical formulas derived in the paper are illustrated by numerical calculations and verified by experiments with a laboratory model of BOOST converter. A satisfying level of conformity of calculations and measurements has been obtained.

Open access

Włodzimierz Janke

Abstract

The averaged models of switch-mode DC-DC power converters are discussed. Two methods of averaged model derivation are considered - the first, based on statespace averaging and the second, on the switch averaging approach. The simplest converters: BUCK, BOOST and BUCK-BOOST working in CCM (continuous conduction mode) or DCM are taken as examples in detailed considerations. Apart from the ideal converters, the more realistic case of converters with parasitic resistances is analyzed. The switch averaging approach is used more frequently than the other and is believed to be more convenient in practical applications. It is shown however, that in the deriving the averaged models based on the switch-averaging approach, some informalities have been made, which may be the source of errors in the case of converters with parasitic resistances, or working in DCM mode.

Open access

Włodzimierz Janke

Abstract

The separation of variables approach to formulate the averaged models of DC-DC switch-mode power converters is presented in the paper. The proposed method is applied to basic converters such as BUCK, BOOST and BUCK-BOOST. The ideal converters or converters with parasitic resistances, working in CCM and in DCM mode are considered. The models are presented in the form of equation systems for large signal, steady-state and small-signal case. It is shown, that the models obtained by separation of variables approach differ in some situations from standard models based on switch averaging method.