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  • Author: Vojko Strojnik x
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This paper aimed to review the effect of physical activity and exercise in frail older persons. As the process which leads to frailty and disability can be slowed down or even completely reversed, it can be appropriate for early interventions.


A literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and UpToDate. The criterion in selecting the literature was that articles were published from 2002 to 2017. From 620,043 initial hits, 25 publications were selected.


Physical activity and exercise in frail elderly are effective and relatively safe and may reverse frailty.


Different exercise interventions in frail elderly persons can increase strength and power, improve balance and reduce fall incidence resulting in greater quality of life. From this perspective, physical exercise interventions should become daily routine in frail elderly persons.


The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump) on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head) position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson"s correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.


Few, if any, studies have reported the effects of intensity of balance exercise for balance training and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to find a relative measure of intensity of balance exercise. On this basis, we analysed ankle muscle activation in the sagittal plane with increasing difficulty for a one leg stance on a T-board. Ten adults (7 men, 24.1 ± 3.5 years; 3 women, 30.6 ± 5.8 years) performed 3 trials on a T-board within 6 randomly assigned stability levels. T-board swaying velocities in the sagittal plane were manipulated to attain different stability levels (conditions). Concurrently, angular distance of the T-board and active balance time (i.e., percentage of a total time balancing) under each condition were measured. Surface electromyography from the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius and soleus were monitored during one leg stance. The surface electromyography amplitude in the time domain was quantified using the root-mean-square values. Significant effect of stability levels on angular distance (F5,45 = 3.4; p = 0.01) and velocity of the T-board (F5,45 = 4.6; p = 0.002) were obtained. Active balance time decreased by ∼15% (p = 0.001) from the maximal to the minimal stability conditions. The graded level of balance board stability conditions did not generate significantly higher root-mean-square values in any muscles and hence could not be used as a relative measure of intensity of balance exercise. These findings imply that there could be a plateau in difficulty of balance exercise for enhancement of ankle muscle activity.


This study aimed to examine the correlation of different dry land strength and power tests with swimming start performance. Twenty international level female swimmers (age 15.3 ± 1.6 years, FINA point score 709.6 ± 71.1) performed the track freestyle start. Additionally, dry land tests were conducted: a) squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), b) squat jumps with additional resistance equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of swimmers’ body weight [BW]), and c) leg extension and leg flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Correlations between dry land tests and start times at 5, 10 and 15 m were quantified through Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients (r). The peak bar velocity reached during the jumps with additional resistance was the variable most correlated to swimming start performance (r = -0.57 to -0.66 at 25%BW; r = -0.57 to -0.72 at 50%BW; r = -0.59 to -0.68 at 75%BW; r = -0.50 to - 0.64 at 100%BW). A few significant correlations between the parameters of the SJ and the CMJ with times of 5 and 10 m were found, and none with the isometric variables. The peak velocity reached during jumps with external loads relative to BW was found a good indicator of swimming start performance.