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Vlastimil Rehacek and Ivan Hotovy

Abstract

In this paper, experimental results are presented on the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles on the surfaces of TiO2 prepared on silicon/silicon dioxide. Important procedures, such as titanium dioxide surface hydrophilization as well as functionalization by an organosilane coupling agent (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane were investigated in order to obtain a metal oxide surface with the most convenient properties for immobilization of gold nanoparticles having a dense and uniform distribution. TiO2 nanotips prepared by reactive ion etching of oxide surface covered with self-mask gold nanoparticles are demonstrated.

Open access

Jozef Liday, Peter Vogrinčič, Viliam Vretenár, Mário Kotlár, Marián Marton and Vlastimil Reháček

Abstract

We have designed and verified a new structure for ohmic contacts to p-GaN, mainly for applications in light emitting devices based on a layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and metallic layers of Cr and Au, namely in configuration Au/Cr/SWCNT/p-GaN. The layer of carbon nanotubes was deposited on p-GaN by spraying a solution of synthesized SWCNTs, while the layers of Cr and Au were vapour deposited. The effects of the annealing temperature and time upon the electrical properties of Au/Cr/SWCNT/p-GaN contacts have been studied. It has been found that the contact structure provides a low resistivity ohmic contact after subsequent annealing in N2 ambient at 700 °C for 1 minute.

Open access

Ivan Hotovy, Ivan Kostic, Martin Predanocy, Pavol Nemec and Vlastimil Rehacek

Abstract

Patterning of metal oxide nanostructures with different shapes and well-defined size may play an important role in the improvement of MEMS systems, sensors and optical devices. We investigated the effects of HSQ e-beam resist processing on the fabrication of sputtered TiO2 nanostructures. They were patterned using direct write e-beam lithography combined with ICP-RIE etching in CF4/Ar plasma. Experimental results confirmed that the HSQ resist with a thickness of about 600 nm is suitable as a masking material for optimal etching process and allows patterning of the dots array in TiO2 sputtered films with a thickness up 150 nm. TiO2 arrays with a minimal dots diameter of 180 nm and spacing of 1000 nm were successfully developed.

Open access

Jozef Liday, Peter Vogrinčič, Viliam Vretenár, Mário Kotlár, Marián Marton and Vlastimil Řeháček

Abstract

Due to their properties, carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are highly promising materials for obtaining low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-GaN with good optical transparency for visible light. In this contribution we designed a combination of these two materials, along with a cap layer, to be used as structures for ohmic contacts to p-GaN. Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene oxide (GO) layers were deposited by spray coating using an off-the-shelf airbrush on p-GaN layers. The metallic layers of Au/Pd were vapour deposited. The structures for ohmic contacts were prepared in two configurations, namely as Au/Pd/r-GO/CNT/p-GaN and Au/Pd/CNT/r-GO/CNT/p-GaN. The prepared structures provide a low resistivity ohmic contact after subsequent annealing in air ambient at 600 °C for 3 minutes. The contact containing the sandwich CNT/r-GO/CNT interstructure exhibits lower values of contact resistance in comparison with the r-GO/CNT interstructure.

Open access

Vlastimil Řeháček, Ivan Hotový, Marian Vojs, Mário Kotlár, Thomas Kups and Lothar Spiess

Pyrolyzed Photoresist Film Electrodes for Application in Electroanalysis

Pyrolyzed photoresist film (PPF) electrodes for application in electroanalysis were prepared on alumina substrates. These electrodes were characterized for their electrical, microstructural (by Raman spectroscopy) and electrochemical properties. As a support, the PPF electrodes were tested for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) in an aqueous solution on in-situ formed bismuth film by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The dependence of the stripping responses on the concentration of target metals was linear in the range from 1 × 10-8 to 9 × 10-8 mol/L. The effect of activation of the PPF surface by argon plasma on analytical performance of bismuth film electrode (BiFE) on PPF support was also investigated.

Open access

Ivan Hotový, Ivan Kostič, Štefan HAščík, Vlastimil ŘEháček, Jozef Liday and Helmut Sitter

Development and Fabrication of TiO2 Tip Arrays for Gas Sensing

Titanium oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixture of oxygen and argon on oxidized silicon substrates. The optimal etching characteristics of TiO2 films by reactive ion etching (RIE) and RIE with inductively coupled plasma source (ICP) were investigated. Patterning of TiO2 tip arrays by electron beam lithography and dry etching were developed. Different spot sizes 200 and 500 nm in diameter and with spacing 500 and 1000 nm were investigated with regards to the minimal size and the pyramidal shape. Experimental results have shown that the exposure dose optimization wa a significant parameter for controlling the tip size and its shape. We successfully fabricated the pyramidal TiO2 tip arrays over an 1 × 1 mm2 area. The TiO2 tip array can be expected to have an important application in gas microsensors.

Open access

Liday Jozef, Vogrinčič Peter, Vretenár Viliam, Kotlár Mário, Marton Marián, Mikolášek Miroslav and Řeháček Vlastimil

Abstract

We have designed and verified a new structure for ohmic contacts to p-GaN based on a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNT), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) and metallic layers of Cr, Pd and Au, namely in configurations Au/Cr/r-GO/CNT/p-GaN and Au/Pd/r-GO/CNT/p-GaN. The effects have been studied of the annealing temperature and the gas ambient upon the electrical properties of the contacts. Annealing of the Au/Pd/r-GO/CNT/p-GaN structure in air at 500°C for 1 minute resulted in linear I - V curves measured between planar electrodes on the p-GaN. Hence, addition of r-GO to the CNT interlayer between p-GaN and the metallization layer is a highly promising procedure for further improvements of the ohmic contacts to p-GaN.

Open access

Jozef Liday, Peter Vogrinčič, Ivan Hotový, Alberta Bonanni, Helmut Sitter, Tibor Lalinský, Gabriel Vanko, Vlastimil Řeháček, Juraj Breza and Gernot Ecke

Ohmic contacts to p-GaN Using Au/Ni-Mg-O Metallization

Electrical characteristics and elemental depth profiles of ohmic contacts to p-GaN using Au/Ni-Mg-Ox metallization have been investigated. The objective was to examine the possibilities of increasing the charge carrier concentration in the surface region of GaN by adding Mg, thus of a p-type dopant into the Au/NiOx metallization structure. For this purpose, a Ni-Mg-Ox layer with a low concentration of Mg was deposited on p-GaN by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The top Au layer was deposited in a similar way. The fabricated contact structures were annealed in N2. When the Ni-Mg layer in the Au/Ni-Mg-Ox/p-GaN structure was deposited in an atmosphere with a low concentration of oxygen (0.2 at%), the structure exhibited a low resistance ohmic nature. The contact resistance was lower than in the case of a Au/Ni-Ox/p-GaN structure without the Mg dopant in the metallic layer. An increase in the concentration of oxygen in the working atmosphere resulted in higher values of the contact resistance of the Au/Ni-Mg-Ox/p-GaN structure. In our opinion the ohmic nature of the contact structure is related to the existence of a metal/p-NiO/p-GaN scheme. The measured values of the contact resistance in the Au/Ni-Mg-Ox/p-GaN structure in comparison with the Au/Ni-Ox/p-GaN structure are caused by an increased charge carrier concentration in the surface region of p-GaN, which is a consequence of Mg diffusion from the Ni-Mg-Ox layer.

Open access

Miroslav Mikolášek, Ján Jakaboviš, Vlastimil Řeháček, Ladislav Harmatha and Robert Andok

Abstract

In this paper we present the capacitance study of the intrinsic amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterostructure with the aim to gain insight on the heterointerface properties of a passivated silicon heterojunction solar cell. It is shown that due to the high density of defect states in the amorphous layer the structure has to be analyzed as a heterojunction. Using the analysis, the following values have been determined: conduction-band offset of 0.13 eV, electron affinity of 3.92 eV, and density of defect states in the intrinsic amorphous silicon being that of 4.14 X 1021m—3.

Open access

Jozef Liday, Peter Vogrinčič, Viliam Vretenár, Ivan Hotový, Mário Kotlár, Marián Marton and Vlastimil Řeháček

Abstract

We have examined electrical properties and concentration depth profiles of contact structures Au/Ni-Mg-(O)/SWCNT/p- GaN and Au/Ni-Mg-O/p-GaN, thus with and without an interlaying layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The metallization layers were deposited on p-GaN by DC reactive magnetron sputtering in an atmosphere with and without a low concentration of oxygen (cca 0.2 at%). The contacts were annealed in N2 . We have found that the structure containing the SWCNT interlayer exhibits lower values of contact resistivity in comparison with an otherwise identical contact without the SWCNT interlayer