Renata Ćušterevska, Vlado Matevski, Mitko Kostadinovski and Andraž Čarni
Dry Grassland Communities of Erysimo-Trifolietum in the Northeastern Part of the Republic of Macedonia
The study deals with the distribution and classification of the association Erysimo-Trifolietum Micevski 1977 (alliance Trifolion cherleri Micevski 1971, order Astragalo-Potentilletalia Micevski 1971, class Festuco-Brometea Br. Bl. et Tx. 1943). The association develops on siliceous bedrock of the northern and northeastern parts of the Republic of Macedonia. After the research of dry grasslands in the region of Kratovo, enough information was available to prepare a synthetic overview of the association Erysimo-Trifolietum. Within the frame of this association, two new subassoaciations are described - subass. scleranthetosum subass. nova and subass. brachypodietosum subass. nova. Analysis of geoelements showed that sub-Mediterranean species are the most numerous and analysis of life forms provided evidence of their therophyto-hemicryptophytic physiognomy. The paper also presents the localities of occurrence, their floristic composition, synecological characteristics, life forms incidence and areal types.
Marco Antonio Batalha, Renata Ćušterevska and Vlado Matevski
Climatic gradients can be used to predict the extent to which climate drives biodiversity and to which biodiversity may be affected by global climate changes. Climate and evolutionary history are linked by the ecological adaptations of species and the history of Earth’s climate. If so, phylogenetic diversity may be a good metric to estimate biodiversity. We aimed to test whether the phylogenetic diversity of Macedonian dry grasslands was related to climatic variables. We sampled 575 plots, identifying the species and building a phylogenetic tree for them. We calculated two metrics of phylogenetic diversity and regressed them against climatic variables. We also tested whether there were nodes in the tree responsible for the main observed spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity. We found a strong signature of evolutionary history in species sorting across a gradient driven by climate in Macedonian dry grasslands. First, the amount of evolutionary history decreased towards drier and more seasonal climates, suggesting a phylogenetic niche conservatism. Second, there was an air temperature filter and a temperature seasonality filter, acting in opposite directions and leading to phylogenetic clustering. Third, there were few nodes in the phylogenetic tree with high degrees of allopatry, associated with clades that differed not only in their geographic distribution, but also in their climatic preferences. Macedonian dry grassland communities developed over centuries of traditional land use but are threatened nowadays by human activities. The use of phylogenetic approaches may lead to more effective conservation policies and help us preserve this highly diverse vegetation.
Andraž Čarni, Vlado Matevski, Urban Šilc and Renata Ćušterevska
The work deals with habitats of Romulea bulbocodium and Romulea linaresii ssp. graeca in the southern Balkans. Both species appear in early spring ephemeral therophytic non-nitrophilous grasslands in regions under the influence of the Mediterranean climate. These communities are classified within the Romulion alliance, which encompasses such communities from the eastern Mediterranean area. It was established that the main climatic factor causing the diversity of these communities is seasonality in precipitation and temperature. Two associations are presented, as Lagopo-Poetum bulbosae and Romuleo graecae-Poetum bulbosae.
Naim Berisha, Fadil Millaku, Bekim Gashi and Vlado Matevski
In Europe, the genus Ramonda is represented with three species: Ramonda nathaliae, Ramonda serbica and Ramonda myconi. The first two are endemic Balkan species that are distributed also in Kosovo. These species grow in limestone as well as serpentine substrates, forming chasmophytic vegetation. The species Ramonda nathaliae is found in Macedonia, Greece, Serbia and in two localities in Kosovo, in the Sharri Mountains (Luboten and Gotovushë). R. nathaliae forms the following plant associations in the serpentines of Macedonia: AsplenioRamondetum nathaliae and Scorzonero-Ramondetum nathaliae, and the AchilleoRamondetum nathaliae in limestone substrates. Ostrya carpinifolia is charateristic species in Querco pubescentis-Ostryetum carpinifoliae, Ostryo-Fagetum, Querco-Ostryetum carpinifoliae and Corylo colurnae-Ostryetum carpinifoliae. This paper presents plant communities of Ramonda nathaliae and Ostrya carpinifolia in a limestone habitat, where the proposed new plant association named RamondoOstryetum carpinifoliae ass. nova. is described. This plant community belongs to the class Quercetea pubescentis, order Quercetalia pubescentipetraeae and alliance Fraxino orniOstryion. It was found and described on the limestone substrate on Mt. Luboteni (at 960–982 m a.s.l.).
Vlado Matevski, Andraž Čarni, Mitko Kostadinovski, Aleksander Marinšek, Ladislav Mucina, Andrej Paušič and Urban Šilc
Notes on phytosociology of Juniperus Excelsa in Macedonia (Southern Balkan Peninsula)
Juniperus excelsa is an East Mediterranean species found also in marginal, sub-mediterranean regions of the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It prefers shallow soils in the warmest habitats of the zone of thermophilous deciduous forests. In the past the rank of alliance and the name of Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae have been suggested for the vegetation dominated by Juniperus excelsa in the Balkan Peninsula. In this paper we present the valid description of the alliance in accordance with the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. The validation of the Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae required description of a new association - the Querco trojanae-Juniperetum excelsae. The Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae is classified within the order of Quercetalia pubescentis Klika 1933 (the Quercetea pubescentis Doing-Kraft ex Scamoni et Passarge 1959).