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Mariola Chomczyńska, Vladimir Soldatov, Henryk Wasąg and Marcin Turski

Abstract

The effect of small additions of ion exchange substrate (nutrient carrier) on root development and accompanying ground cohesion (characterized by its penetration resistance) was studied. During two pot experiments Dactylis glomerata L. was grown on sand and its mixture with 1 and 2% (v/v) of ion exchange substrate, respectively. The number and total length of roots were measured during the first test. Penetration resistance was measured with a pentrologger, following the second experiment. After six weeks of growth, number and length of roots in sand mixture with 1 and 2% substrate was greater than in sand-only medium by 211-287 and 273-323%, respectively. At the same time, penetration resistance in series with substrate additions was significantly higher than in control medium at depth of 2.5-7(8) cm, whereas after 12 week of growth, penetration resistance in series with 1 and 2% substrate additions was significantly greater than in control sand at the whole analyzed depth. The highest resistance values in media with substrate additions 2-2.5 times greater than those in sand alone – were observed at depth of 3.5-4.0 cm. Higher resistance of sand-substrate mixtures results from more intensive development of root systems, forming a mesh which binds sand particles. Such media would be less susceptible to erosion.

Open access

Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costică Nitu, Ferdenant A. Mkrtchyan, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov and Anda Sabena Dobrescu

Abstract

Informational capabilities of microwave and optical tools for environmental monitoring are assessed when they are located on the mobile platforms. This paper presents new approach to the combined use of microwave and optical sensors as basic elements of environmental monitoring system architecture oriented on the registration of information about characteristics of hydrological and hydrochemical objects. Geoecological in-formation-modeling system (GIMS) is proposed as the GIS generalization with regard to the solution of series of the tasks arising in the agriculture, water quality assessment and operational diagnostics of stressful natural processes. Algorithms and models are characterized to be as the GIMS components that realize the decision making procedures providing the monitoring regime optimization and reconstruction of spatial image of the controlled environmental object using anisotropic data fluxes. Functional characteristics of several mobile platforms equipped by microwave radiometers are given as tools for the monitoring of hydrological objects. Two optical instruments are represented and their functions are characterized.