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Vladimír Šimanský

Assessment of Soil Structure Under Monoculture of Vines

Long-term impact of vine growing on the soil structure stability was studied in three wine-growing areas of Slovakia. In Leptosols, the highest content of water-stable aggregates was determined. This soil type had the lowest vulnerability of soil structure as well. In Chernozems, the highest stability of soil structure was determined, while on the other hand, in Fluvisols, soil structure had the highest vulnerability. Between rows of vines in comparison to rows of vines a more favourable soil structure was determined. In vineyards, the soil structure state depends on the quantity and stability of soil organic matter, as well as particle size distribution.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský

Abstract

The effect of different fire severity on the changes of the soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure was evaluated. Soil samples were collected (May 2010) in the locality of Nitra-Dražovce (Slovakia) from the following plots: 1) control (unburned place), 2) low severity of fire and 3) higher severity of fire. The results showed that the content of water-stable microaggregates (WSAmi) increased by 20% in the area with a low severity of fire, but on the other hand, it decreased by 42% in the area with the higher severity of fire in comparison to control. The higher severity of fire resulted in a decrease of smaller size fractions of water-stable macroaggregates (WSAma) (0.5−0.25) and a low severity of fire resulted in the decrease of WSAma 2−0.5 mm. On the other hand, the content of WSAma in the size fraction >5 mm was higher by 54% and by 32% in the lower and higher severity of fire, respectively, than in unburned soil. The higher severity of fire had a more positive effect on increases of the structure coefficient and coefficient of aggregate stability, as well as on the decrease of the vulnerability coefficient compared to the low severity of fire. After burning, the contents of soil organic carbon (Corg) and labile carbon were significantly increased by the severity of fire. However, the low severity of fire affected more markedly the increase of hot water-soluble and cold water-soluble carbon than the higher severity of fire. After burning and due to the severity of fire, both the carbon of humic and carbon of fulvic acids ratios and SOM stability increased. The parameters of SOM due to fire significantly increased also in WSA with the least changes in WSAmi. The results showed that a low severity of fire increased Corg mainly in WSAma >2mm and WSAmi, whereas high severity fire increased Corg content in the smaller fraction of WSAma.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský

Abstract

Quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) is very important from view point of sustainable agriculture; therefore, during the years 1994–2011, the influence of different soil management practices on changes in SOM parameters in loamy Haplic Luvisol was evaluated in a field experiment in the locality of Dolná Malanta. The field experiment included two types of soil tillage – (1) conventional tillage (CT) and (2) reduced tillage (RT) – and also two treatments of fertilisation – (1) crop residues together with added NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) fertilisers (CR + NPK) and (2) added NPK fertilisers. Contents of humic substances (HS) and fulvic acids (FA) under RT increased by 1.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared to CT during the years 1994–2011. On the other hand, contents of humic acids (HA), HA-to-FA ratios, colour quotient of HS and colour quotient of HA under CT increased by 2.0%, 2.5%, 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively, compared to RT. In CT and RT, HS declined at an average speed of 0.33% and 0.53% per year, respectively. In CR + NPK treatments and application, only NPK fertiliser caused a decline of HS at an average speed of 0.52% and 0.33 % per year, respectively. In CT, RT and CR + NPK treatments, the linear trends (statistical significant) in decline of FA were observed. All in all, the CT had a slightly better effect on the quality of SOM, whilst the stability of SOM was improved by RT. Applications of mineral fertilisers along with crop residues resulted in better quality but lower stability of SOM.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský and Marek Kolenčík

Abstract

The physical properties of Luvisols under vineyards of the Nitra wine-growing area (Slovakia) were evaluated in the paper. Soil samples were taken from two selected localities (Nitra - Dražovce, Vráble). The obtained results showed that in the soil profile of Dražovce, the average contents of non-capillary pores, capillary pores and semi-capillary pores to the total porosity were equal to 26.1, 64.4 and 9.4%, respectively, and in the soil profile of Vráble - 22.3, 75.6 and 2.1%, respectively. In the Dražovce locality, the average content of aggregate stability index (Sw) decreased in the following order: abandoned vineyard > grassy strip between the vineyard rows > intensively cultivated rows of vineyard. In contrast, in the Vráble locality, higher average contents of Sw were determined in intensively cultivated rows of vineyard in comparison to grassy strip between the vineyard rows. The lowest average value of vulnerability coefficient (Kv) was observed in abandoned vineyard (Dražovce locality) and in both localities in grassy strip between the vineyard rows. Intensive cultivation of the vineyard rows resulted in higher vulnerability of soil structure. The values of maximum capillary capacity were almost the same in both soil profiles of Luvisols. A higher content of soil moisture was observed in the soil profile in the Vráble locality (33.6±2.50) in comparison to the Dražovce locality (30.6±5.44). Higher content of storage moisture was determined in the Vráble locality (2,684 l m-2) in comparison to the Dražovce locality (2,450 l m-2).

Open access

V. Šimanský, N. Polláková and J. Jonczak

Abstract

At present time exists a lot of soil tillage practices with different effects on soil productivity, therefore the effects of two tillage systems (conventional: CT, and miminum: MT) and two different soil types (Chernozem and Mollic Fluvisol) on soil physical quality indicators and water availability were evaluated in an on-farm study in the Krakovany (Danube Lowland, Slovakia). We evaluated pore-size distributions and selected hydro-physical properties (capillary rise, maximum capillary water capacity and retention water capacity). The total porosity (P) on average by 23% and by 14%, non-capillary pores (Pn) by 271% and by 114% and semicapillary pores by 102% and by 192% were significantly greater for CT than MT in Chernozem and in Mollic Fluvisol, respectively. The content of capillary pores (Pc) was significantly greater for MT than CT on average by 13% and 8% in Chernozem and in Mollic Fluvisol, respectively. The average content of capillary rise (ΘCR), maximum capillary water capacity (ΘMCWC) and retention water capacity (ΘRWC) were higher by 6, 10 and 13% under MT than CT in soil profile of Chernozem. The same effect of soil tillage systems in Mollic Fluvisol was not observed. In Chernozem under MT with increased P, ΘCR significantly increased, however, under CT, the ΘCR significantly decreased. At the same time we determined negative correlations between Pn and soil water retention characteristics under CT. Higher content of Pc resulted in higher values of capillary rise, maximum capillary water capacity and retention water capacity in both soil types under both tillage systems.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský and Nora Polláková

Abstract

Since understanding soil organic matter (SOM) content and quality is very important, in the present study we evaluated parameters of SOM including: carbon lability (LC), lability index (LI), carbon pool index (CPI) and carbon management index (CMI) in the soil as well as in the water-stable aggregates (WSA) under different soil management practices in a commercial vineyard (established on Rendzic Leptosol in the Nitra viticulture area, Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in spring during the years 2008–2015 from the following treatments: G (grass, control), T (tillage and intensive cultivation), T+FYM (tillage + farmyard manure), G+NPK3 (grass + 3rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards), and G+NPK1 (grass + 1st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards). The highest LI values in soil were found for the G+NPK3 and T+FYM fertilised treatments and the lowest for the unfertilised intensively tilled treatments. The CPI in the soil increased as follows: T < G+NPK3 < T+FYM < G+NPK1. The highest accumulation of carbon as well as decomposable organic matter occurred in G+NPK1 compared to other fertilised treatments, while intensive tillage caused a decrease. On average, the values of LI in WSA increased in the sequence G+NPK1 < T+FYM < G+NPK3 < T. Our results showed that the greatest SOM vulnerability to degradation was observed in the WSA under T treatment, and the greatest values of CPI in WSA were detected as a result of fertiliser application in 3rd intensity for vineyards and farmyard manure application.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský and Peter Kováčik

Abstract

Sequestration of organic carbon in soils is an effective strategy to mitigate global climate change. Carbon sequestration leads to an increase in carbon stocks in soil, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions while improving soil quality and crop production. There are several published articles containing information in which the authors explain carbon sequestration in different soil types under different climatic conditions or farming systems, but on the other hand there is less information about carbon sequestration in water-stable aggregates. In field experiment, the manner in which different soil management practices influence carbon sequestration and its dynamics in water-stable aggregates was studied. We evaluated the soil samples taken from Haplic Luvisol (Dolná Malanta - Slovakia) from all treatments of tillage (conventional, minimal and grassland) and fertilisation (without fertilisation, crop residues together with NPK fertilisers and only NPK fertilisers). The maintenance of carbon concentration within soil under conventional tillage and in native grassland was due to an enhanced incorporation of new organic matter from the coarse fraction of particulate organic matter to macro-aggregates and in treatment with ploughed crop residue together with NPK fertilisers, there was besides of this caused by the reduction of carbon mineralisation from the fine fraction. Soil management practices have a significant effect on the re-distribution of soil organic matter in water-stable aggregates. In conventional and minimal tillage, very important sources of carbon sequestration are agronomical favourable size fractions of water-stable macro-aggregates and in native grassland, as well as in all fertiliser treatments, the most important source of carbon sequestration is water-stable micro-aggregates.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský and Erika Tobiašová

Abstract

The effect of different doses of NPK fertilizer on the changes in quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) in Rendzic Leptosol was evaluated. Soil samples were taken from three treatments of different fertilization: (1) control - without fertilization, (2) NPK 1 - doses of NPK fertilizer in 1st degree intensity for vine, and (3) NPK 3 - doses of NPK fertilizer in 3rd degree intensity for vine in the vineyard. Soil samples were collected in years 2008-2011 during the spring. The higher dose of NPK fertilizer (3rd degree intensity of vineyards fertilization) was responsible for the higher content of labile carbon (by 21% in 0-0.3 m and by 11% as average of the two depths 0-0.3 m and 0.3-0.6 m). However, by application of a higher dose of NPK (1.39%) in comparison to no fertilizer treatment (1.35%) or NPK 1 (1.35%) the tendency of total organic carbon content increase and hot-water soluble carbon decrease were determined. Fertilization had a negative effect on SOM stability. Intensity of fertilization affected the changes in quantity and quality of SOM; therefore it is very important to pay attention to the quantity and quality of organic matter in productive vineyards.

Open access

Ján Horák and Vladimír Šimanský

Abstract

An experiment of different application rates of biochar and biochar combined with nitrogen fertiliser was conducted at experimental field on a Haplic Luvisol located in Nitra region of Slovakia during the growing season of spring barley (2014). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of biochar and biochar combined with nitrogen fertilisation on the soil organic carbon (SOC). The treatments consisted of 0, 10 and 20 t/ha of biochar application (B0, B10 and B20) combined with 0, 40 and 80 kg/ha N of nitrogen fertiliser applied (N0, N40 and N80). The results showed that SOC content at the beginning and end of the trial was always higher at the plots amended with biochar as compared to control plots (B0N0, B0N40 and B0N80); however, statistically significant effects were observed only at the beginning of the trial as well as at the end of trial in B20N40 treatments. Overall, the highest values of SOC contents were obtained at the beginning as well as at the end of the trial when 10 and 20 t/ha of biochar was applied together with 40 kg/ha N.

Open access

Nora Polláková, Vladimír Šimanský and Jerzy Jonczak

Abstract

The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.