Physical fitness, health, and physical endurance are important attributes of persons in military. The purpose of the present study was to assess the changes of anthropometric parameters and of biochemical markers in blood serum for participants of a one-week combat training course (CTC) during which participants had high physical and psychological loads in combination with dietary limitation and sleep deprivation. High physical and psychological loads cause changes in the level of biochemical markers that are indicative of musculoskeletal system dysfunction. The study group included participants (n = 59) of both genders aged 23 to 30 years. Anthropometric parameters (body mass, height, body mass index) were determined. Blood plasma analyses were done before and directly after CTC. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were measured. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20. We determined levels of anthropometric parameters before, during and after a combat training course. The body mass decreased during the one-week training course, until the sixth day of combat training course, when the peak of physical and emotional stress was reached. The level of biomarkers lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase sharply increased after the combat training course. A high physical load caused changes in biochemical markers, indicating musculoskeletal dysfunction in healthy young persons. The study underlines the importance of checking the health status of military personnel before and after exercises with high physical and psychological loads in order to prevent major health disorders in the combat environment.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of chemerin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) in acquired aortic valve (AoV) stenosis patients to determine correlations between the studied cellular factors, and also clarify the predictive values of these factors as biomarkers in AoV stenosis. AoV stenosis patients were classified into three groups: 17 patients with mild AoV stenosis; 19 with moderate and 15 with severe AoV stenosis. Twenty-four subjects without AoV stenosis were selected as a control group. Our findings suggest that AoV stenosis might be associated with increased chemerin, TrxR1, MPO, and FGF-21 levels in plasma. Moreover, these factors and also MMP-9 already reached statistically significantly elevated levels in the early stages of AoV stenosis, but MPO levels were more pronounced in patients with moderate and severe AoV stenosis. Chemerin was correlated with all of the studied cytokines; TrxR1 and MMP-9 were correlated with several other cellular factors. Our findings (by ROC analysis) suggest that MPO and chemerin might serve as specific and sensitive biomarkers for AoV stenosis without grading the severity, but, in relation to mild AoV stenosis, TrxR1, FGF-21, and MMP-9 also reached good or moderate levels as biomarkers. The cellular factors might serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in AoV stenosis patients, while chemerin and MPO may be more powerful.
Analysis of Polymorphisms at the Adiponectin Gene Locus in Association with Type 2 Diabetes, Body Mass Index and Cardiovascular Traits in Latvian Population
Despite the number of recently conducted studies seeking to determine the association between genetic variants of adiponectin gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increased body mass index (BMI), the results obtained are often inconsistent. To determine the impact of common polymorphisms in promoter and coding regions of adiponectin gene on these conditions in Latvian population, we selected ten SNPs (rs2241767, rs1501299, rs3777261, rs16861210, rs2241766, rs822396, rs182052, rs17300539, rs16861194, rs266729) based on haploblock structure and previously reported association studies. The selected SNPs were screened in a study group of 835 participants from the Genome Data Base of Latvian Population and mainly consisted of patients with T2D and coronary heart disease. None of the individual polymorphisms were significantly associated with T2D status or BMI when analysed using logistic or linear regression and adjusted for gender, age and other significant covariates. Frequency of rs2241766 T allele homozygotes however was significantly increased in T2D patients compared to controls (uncorrected P = 0.007). When analysed with other traits, the rs182052 G allele was found to be less frequent in patients suffering from myocardial infarction (P = 0.02; OR = 0.76, CI95% [0.61-0.92]) compared to others. Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of one haplotype with atrial fibrillation (uncorrected P = 0.01). In summary, we conclude that SNPs in adiponectin gene are unlikely to represent the risk for T2D, but may be involved in pathogenesis of CHD in the Latvian population.
Relation of Endothelial Dysfunction and Adipokines Levels to Insulin Resistance in Metabolic Syndrome Patients
Obese metabolic syndrome (MS) patients were categorised into three groups: 44 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)(D); 20 with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) (DC), and 26 with MS alone (M). Eighteen healthy subjects were selected as controls (C). Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by HOMA-IR. Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations were measured by xMAP technology. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was determined by ELISA. We used laser Doppler imaging for evaluating cutaneous endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the hand. D and DC groups had significantly elevated IR compared with M or C group (P < 0.01). TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and ET-1 levels in DC were significantly elevated compared with other groups (P < 0.001). IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and ET-1 in D group were higher than those in C group (P < 0.05). TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and ET-1 concentrations were correlated with HOMA-IR indexes and adiponectin levels. All patients had lower adiponectin concentrations than controls (P < 0.001), but there were no differences between the patient groups. Only D and DC groups demonstrated a significant and similar decrease in LDI-Ach marker compared to C group (P < 0.001). LDI-Ach values were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR indexes and adiponectin levels (P < 0.001). Our findings show that obese MS patients have significantly increased HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-8 levels, decreased adiponectin concentration, and endothelial dysfunction, but the presence of T2DM and CAD in these patients is associated with more pronounced endothelial dysfunction and increased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.