Katja Goričar, Viljem Kovač, Janez Jazbec, Janez Lamovec and Vita Dolžan
Background: DNA repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining genome stability, and genetic variability in DNA repair genes may contribute to cancer susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN on the risk for osteosarcoma.
Methods: In total, 79 osteosarcoma cases and 373 controls were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of these SNPs with risk for osteosarcoma.
Results: None of the investigated SNPs was associated with risk for osteosarcoma in the whole cohort of patients, however, in patients diagnosed before the age of thirty years XRCC3 rs861539 C>T and NBN rs1805794 G>C were associated with significantly decreased risk for osteosarcoma (P=0.047, OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30-0.99 and P=0.036, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.19-0.94, respectively). Moreover, in the carriers of a combination of polymorphic alleles in both SNPs risk for osteosarcoma was decreased even more significantly (Ptrend=0.007). The risk for developing osteosarcoma was the lowest in patients with no wild-type alleles for both SNPs (P=0.039, OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.10-0.94).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes might contribute to risk for osteosarcoma in patients diagnosed below the age of thirty years.
Introduction. A combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin has been shown to improve the outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), however, there is a great heterogeneity in treatment response among patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in folate pathway and transporter genes on pemetrexed treatment outcome in Slovenian patients with MPM.
Methods. MPM patients treated with pemetrexed in the course of a prospective randomized clinical trial were genotyped for nineteen polymorphisms in five genes of folate pathway and six transporter genes. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and toxicity, while Cox regression was used to determine their influence on progression-free and overall survival.
Results. Patients with at least one polymorphic MTHFD1 rs2236225 allele had a significantly lower response rate (p = 0.005; odds ratio [OR] = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03−0.54) and shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.032; hazard ratio [HR] = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.10−8.74) than non-carriers. Polymorphisms in transporter genes did not influence survival; however, several were associated with toxicity. Liver toxicity was significantly lower in carriers of polymorphic ABCC2 rs2273697 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85), SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85) and rs11045879 (p = 0.014; OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.05−0.71) alleles compared to non-carriers, as well as in patients with SLCO1B1 GCAC haplotype (p = 0.048; OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.03−0.98). Gastrointestinal toxicity was much more common in patients with polymorphic ABCC2 rs717620 allele (p = 0.004; OR = 10.67; 95% CI = 2.15−52.85) and ABCC2 CAG haplotype (p = 0.006; OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 1.64−19.66).
Conclusions. MTHFD1 polymorphism affected treatment response and survival, while polymorphisms in ABCC2 and SLCO1B1 transporter genes influenced the risk for toxicity. These polymorphisms could serve as potential markers of pemetrexed treatment outcome in patients with MPM.
Barbara Jenko, Sonja Praprotnik, Matija Tomšić and Vita Dolžan
Background: The activation of NLRP3-inflammasome may contribute to inflammatory processes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for its components NLRP3 and CARD8 were associated with a proinflammatory phenotype. Our aim was to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on RA susceptibility and disease activity at the time of diagnosis and after six months of treatment.
Methods: A group of 128 RA patients treated with methotrexate and 122 healthy controls were genotyped for NLRP3 rs35829419 (p. Q705K) and CARD8 rs2043211 (p. C10X) polymorphisms.
Results: RA susceptibility was not influenced by the investigated polymorphisms or their interaction. The investigated polymorphisms explained 8% of variability in DAS28 at the time of diagnosis. Carriers of NLRP3 rs35829419 or CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms had significantly higher DAS28 at the time of diagnosis (p=0.003; p=0.022; respectively). Polymorphic CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype was also associated with higher DAS28 after six months of treatment (p=0.033).
Conclusions: Genetic variability of inflammasome components may contribute to higher disease activity at the time of diagnosis and after 6 months of methotrexate treatment in RA patients. Better understanding of the immunological mechanisms behind a more active course of RA may suggest novel treatment approaches in a subset of patients with a proinflammatory phenotype.
Gluconeogenesis and renal glucose excretion in kidneys both play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2), coded by the SLC5A2 gene is responsible for reabsorption up to 99% of the filtered glucose in proximal tubules. SLC5A2 genetic polymorphisms were suggested to influence glucose homeostasis. We investigated if common SLC5A2 rs9934336 polymorphism influences glycemic control and risk for macro or microvascular complications in Slovenian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.
All 181 clinically well characterized T2D patients were genotyped for SLC5A2 rs9934336 G>A polymorphism. Associations with glycemic control and T2D complications were assessed with nonparametric tests and logistic regression.
: SLC5A2 rs9934336 was significantly associated with increased fasting blood glucose levels (P<0.001) and HbA1c levels under the dominant genetic model (P=0.030). After adjustment for T2D duration, significantly higher risk for diabetic retinopathy was present in carriers of at least one polymorphic SLC5A2 rs9934336 A allele compared to non-carriers (OR=7.62; 95%CI=1.65–35.28; P=0.009).
Our pilot study suggests an important role of SLC5A2 polymorphisms in the physiologic process of glucose reabsorption in kidneys in T2D patients. This is also the first report on the association between SLC5A2 polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy.
Katja Goricar, Nina Erculj, Maja Zadel and Vita Dolzan
Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage
Background. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay.
Materials and methods. In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage.
Results. We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage.
Conclusions.XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population.
Anja Plemenitaš, Vita Dolžan and Blanka Kores Plesničar
Background. Alcohol addiction is a very common and complex disease. Alcohol addicted patients have a high risk for developing comorbid psychiatric disorder. Methods. In the present study, we explored symptom expression and severity for the most common comorbid mental disorders in Slovenian alcohol addicted patients. Three groups of male subjects were included: 101 acutely alcohol-addicted inpatients, 100 former alcohol-addicted subjects and 97 healthy controls from a blood donors group. The following questionnaires were employed: AUDIT, Zung Depression and Anxiety scale, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, and Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. Results. Acutely addicted patients showed significantly more obsessive (p<0.001) and compulsive (p<0.001) symptoms and also more obsessive-compulsive symptoms of relying on alcohol consumption (p<0.001) compared to the other two groups. Acutely addicted patients showed significantly more anxiety (p<0.001) as well as depressive (p<0.001) and aggressive (p<0.001) traits compared to the other two groups. Conclusions. Obsessive-compulsive, anxious, depressive and aggressive traits can be comorbidities associated with alcohol addiction. Increased attention to these symptoms during the treatment of alcohol addiction could result in better outcome of alcohol addiction treatment and lower relapse rate
Alenka Franko, Vita Dolžan, Niko Arnerić and Metoda Dodič-Fikfak
Asbestosis and Catalase Genetic Polymorphism
Catalase (CAT) is part of the enzymatic defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS), known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asbestosis. This study investigates whether CAT -262 C>T genetic polymorphism influences the risk of asbestosis in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos.
The nested case-control study included 262 cases with asbestosis and 265 controls with no asbestos-related disease. Data on cumulative asbestos exposure and smoking were available. A real-time PCR assay was introduced for genotyping CAT -262 C>T promoter polymorphism.
A slightly elevated risk of asbestosis was observed in subjects with the CAT -262 TT genotype compared to others (OR=1.36, CI 0.70-2.62). This risk did not change substantially after adjustment by sex, age, and smoking, but the involvement of cumulative asbestos exposure changed the OR to 1.91 (CI 0.93-3.91). These findings indicate that the CAT -262 TT genotype may be slightly associated with an increased risk of asbestosis. No synergistic effect was found between cumulative asbestos exposure and the CAT -262 TT genotype, but cumulative asbestos exposure acted as a confounder. These results are an important contribution to understanding the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that may modify the risk of asbestosis.
Barbara Faganel Kotnik, Janez Jazbec, Petra Bohanec Grabar, Cristina Rodriguez-Antona and Vita Dolzan
We investigated the clinical relevance of SLC 19A1 genetic variability for high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) related toxicities in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML).
Patients and methods
Eighty-eight children and adolescents with ALL/NHML were investigated for the influence of SLC 19A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes on HD-MTX induced toxicities.
Patients with rs2838958 TT genotype had higher probability for mucositis development as compared to carriers of at least one rs2838958 C allele (OR 0.226 (0.071–0.725), p < 0.009). Haplotype TGTTCCG (H4) statistically significantly reduced the risk for the occurrence of adverse events during treatment with HD-MTX (OR 0.143 (0.023–0.852), p = 0.030).
SLC 19A1 SNP and haplotype analysis could provide additional information in a personalized HD-MTX therapy for children with ALL/NHML in order to achieve better treatment outcome. However further studies are needed to validate the results.
Alenka Franko, Nika Kotnik, Katja Goricar, Viljem Kovac, Metoda Dodic-Fikfak and Vita Dolzan
Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer with poor outcome, associated with asbestos exposure. Reactive oxygen species may play an important role in the mechanism of carcinogenesis; therefore, genetic variability in antioxidative defence may modify an individual’s susceptibility to this cancer. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms of NQO1, CAT, SOD2 and hOGG1 genes, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions on malignant mesothelioma risk.
Patients and methods
In total, 150 cases with malignant mesothelioma and 122 controls with no asbestos-related disease were genotyped for NQO1, CAT, SOD2 and hOGG1 polymorphisms.
The risk of malignant mesothelioma increased with smoking, odds ratio (OR) 9.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83–17.98] and slightly with age, OR 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08–1.14). Medium and high asbestos exposures represented 7-times higher risk of malignant mesothelioma compared to low exposure, OR 7.05 (95% CI 3.59–13.83). NQO1 rs1800566 was significantly associated with increased malignant mesothelioma risk, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.02–2.96). Although there was no independent association between either CAT rs1001179 or hOGG1 rs1052133 polymorphism and malignant mesothelioma, interaction between both polymorphisms showed a protective effect, ORint 0.27 (95% CI 0.10–0.77).
Our findings suggest a role of both genetic variability in antioxidative defence and repair as well as the impact of gene-gene interactions in the development of malignant mesothelioma. The results of this study could add to our understanding of pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma and contribute to prevention and earlier diagnosis of this aggressive cancer.
Nina Erculj, Barbara Faganel Kotnik, Marusa Debeljak, Janez Jazbec and Vita Dolzan
Background. We evaluated the influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) related toxicity in paediatric patients with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods. In total, 30 NHL patients were genotyped for selected folate pathway polymorphisms.
Results. Carriers of at least one MTHFR 677T allele had significantly higher MTX area under the time-concentration curve levels at third MTX cycle (P = 0.003). These patients were also at higher odds of leucopoenia (P = 0.006) or thrombocytopenia (P = 0.041) and had higher number of different HD-MTX-related toxicity (P = 0.035) compared to patients with wild-type genotype.
Conclusions. Our results suggest an important role of MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in the development of HD-MTXrelated toxicity in children with NHL.