Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oil crop in the world with a harvested area in 2016 which was 3.9 times more than in 1961. The almost continuous increase of the harvested area at world level is due to the sunflower crop advantages for the farmers and to the increased yielding capacity and oil content in the seeds, all these associated with an increased demand on the market for the sunflower oil. The high yielding capacity associated with high oil content in the seeds is due to the remarkable achievements realized through the breeding programs performed at sunflower crop in the last century. These achievements are related especially to the creation of the high-yielding F1 hybrids with excellent performances. The aim of the present paper is to make an analysis and to give an insight into the situation, evolution, and historical milestones regarding the sunflower varieties and hybrids registered for cultivation in Romania in the last century. In this respect, there were analyzed different informational sources during the last century with respect to the sunflower crop in Romania, but especially the whole collection of the Romanian Official Catalogues of the Varieties of Plant Species. The official journey in Romania of the sunflower as an oil crop started in 1910 and has registered up to present a spectacularly evolution both in terms of cultivated area and varieties and hybrids cultivated.
Mohsen Janmohammadi, Tahere Amanzadeh, Naser Sabaghnia and Viorel Ion
Silicon nanoparticles have distinctive physicochemical characteristics and are able to enter into plants and impact the metabolism of plants as well as improve plant growth and yield under unfavourable environmental conditions. Besides, low soil organic matter content, imbalanced nutrient and inadequate water supply may adversely affect crop productivity in semiarid areas. To understand the effects of foliar spray of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (nSiO2) with application of farmyard manure (FYM) or inorganic fertilizer on morpho-physiological traits and yield of safflower, a field experiment was carried out in a highland semiarid region of Maragheh, northwest Iran. The experiment consisted of two levels of nSiO2 (0 and 20 mM) and four fertilizer regimes (control, 15 t ha−1 FYM, 30 t ha−1 FYM, 90 kg ha−1 N-P-K chemical fertilizer). Safflower plants were treated with nSiO2 suspension at leaf development, branching and capitulum emergence stages. Although the nSiO2 significantly improved some growth parameters such as canopy spread, stem diameter, plant height, ground cover and the number of achenes in capitulum, it did not affect achene yield and harvest index. However, fertilizer treatments considerably affected most of morpho-physiological traits, achene yield and yield components. The result showed that the best growth and the highest achene yield were achieved by application of 30 t ha−1 FYM before sowing. Application of high FYM increased the achene yield by 48% compared to the control, however, application of N-P-K chemical fertilizer or of 15 t ha−1 FYM improved achene yield only up to 17% over the no fertilizer condition. Moreover, this work revealed some positive effects of exogenous application of nSiO2 on safflower growth. This finding suggests that application of organic fertilizers with foliar spray of nSiO2 can improve safflower production and is an advisable agronomic option.
Viorel Ionescu, Gabriel Prodan, Ionut Jepu, Ion Mustata, Cristian Petrica Lungu and Eugeniu Vasile
NiFeCo granular ferromagnetic thin films were deposited on glass and silicon wafer substrates in thermionic vacuum arc plasma with simultaneous ignition of plasma in Cu and NiFe vapors. The structural and morphological properties of the prepared films were investigated by TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Elemental composition of the films was revealed after X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDAX). The magneto-optical longitudinal Kerr rotation spectra of the samples were also measured and compared.