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Đorđe Stefanović, Violeta Šiljak, Slađana Mijatović and Vladan Vukašinović

Abstract

The scientific contribution of this paper consists of an innovative approach to the issues of Orthodox faith and sport, which opens up a new creative area for theology itself, where sport also gets new opportunities. Given the known "affair" in almost all sports branches, which illustrate the state of "alarming helplessness", the contribution of faith in solving it is indisputable, especially in the way advocated in this research work. The primary goal is to extract from the plethora of theological literature those contents that can encourage the creative responsibility of all positive factors of sports events, from the athletes themselves, through their managers and club officials to the fans. Recognizing these problems and referring to theological sources as "clear content", without the bias of the members, with critical awareness, qualifies work to search and find adequate answers to the asked questions. The mere fact that a new research field has been opened, without the intention to make the last word on this, points to the scientific contribution of this paper.

Open access

Slađana Mijatović, Obrad Zlatić, Vladan Vukašinović, Gordana Vekarić and Violeta Šiljak

Abstract

Since the first years of high school instruction in the Principality of Serbia, various Ministers of Education, principals and first gymnastics teachers had been thinking about physical education instruction. Better political, economic and cultural situation in Serbia together with the influences and ideas arriving from culturally developed European countries gave rise to several initiatives related to physical education instruction which were introduced into high school curricula.

Persons with different qualification levels were engaged as physical education teachers (gymnastics teachers) and they remained at that position for a few years. The aim of the paper was to establish who the PE teachers were in High School of Užice since its establishment until the beginning of the First World War (1839-1914). Historical method was used in this paper.

From 1839 until 1878 there were no organized physical education classes (physical exercise and gymnastics) because the first teachers in this school were not interested, or experienced about this type of instruction. By the written approval, the Minister of Education appointed in September 1878 the first gymnastics teacher Steva Trifunović, teacher of painting and calligraphy. In the next period the classes used to be realized by teachers of Serbian language, geometry and algebra, geography or officers and sometimes even all other homeroom teachers.

Regardless the fact that those were all people who had acquired basic knowledge on physical exercising in military schools or in gymnastic societies, it was still not enough for professional work in PE education and its further promotion.

The solution to the problem was initiated only in 1910. when Josef Jehlička came, at the invitation of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, together with a group of Czeck Sokol leaders who had been sent to work in High School of Užice and improved quality of physical education classes in that school thanks to his professional competence. That led to the conditions for the PE classes in High School of Užice to become more significant in the system of general education of students.

Open access

Slađana Mijatović, Violeta Šiljak and Vladan Vukašinović

Summary

The idea of revival of the Olympic Games appeared much before its realization, but creation of the possibilities to reintroduce the Games was closely related to development of modern sport. The first mentioning and proposals originated from the works of the Humanists in 15th and 16th century and in the thirties of the 19th century some practical attempts were made for their revival.

The aim of the paper was to determine the time when the first ideas on Olympism appeared in Serbia in civil gymnastic and other sporting societies and clubs. Historical method was used in the paper

For a long period Serbia was cherishing and developing traditional forms of competitions and tournaments but organized forms of physical exercises of citizens appeared only in the mid-19th century when the first private schools for physical exercises were established in many towns of the Principality of Serbia. Therefore, these private schools and the civil gymnastic societies were places where modern sport and the Olympic ideal were gladly accepted and further developed. Thus, it is understandable why, at the time of realization of the idea on revival of Ancient Olympic Games, those societies and clubs used the expression: Olympic competitions for their sporting events, besides they already used names: popular festivals or chivalry competitive plays.

In the mid-19th century the Olympic idea took roots also in the Principality and later in the Kingdom of Serbia. Namely, before the revival of the Olympic Games in Athens and before the term „Olympic“ became more significant in reporting from sporting events, the competitions in Serbia had been announced as „Olympic festivities“ although they were not directly linked to the aforementioned Games in Greece.

Open access

Obrad Zlatić, Slađana Mijatović, Vladan Vukašinović and Violeta Šiljak

Summary

Citizens of Uzice received a high school in 1839 for the first time by moving the semi-grammar school from Cacak. After three years, in 1842, the semi-grammar school moved from Užice to Čačak. Twenty-three years have passed until the reopening of the semi-grammar school in Uzice. With minor interruptions in work, caused primarily by war conflicts, the School worked until the beginning of the First World War in 1914.

This research sought to learn about the realization of physical education in Uzice High School since its foundation until the beginning of the First World War. The aim of the research was to find out the time of introduction of physical education in Uzice Gymnasium and its realization in that period, in all its important elements (teaching program and its performance, teachers, material resources, equipment). In this research, a historical method was used.

Teaching of physical education (body-education, guided tutoring and gymnastics) in Uzice High School was not realized in the period from 1839 to 1878.

The first data relating to the attempt to introduce physical education in the Gymnasium of Uzice dated back to 1874. In school year of 1878/79 In the course of the year, the teaching of physical education began within the curriculum, which, at the beginning of the school year was reviewed and adopted by the school's professor council.

By bringing and adopting a curriculum for gymnastics and military exercises from 1882 to 1990, the realization of teaching has characteristics of militarized training. After 1890, there was a period in which there was no teaching of physical education.

With the opening of the newly built building of Gymnasium in 1893, the conditions for a better implementation of the curricula of physical education, which were prescribed by the Ministry of Education, were met.

When Josif Jehlichka came to Gymnasium in Uzice to the invitation of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, in 1911, as a teacher of gymnastics, a significant rise in the realization of the teaching of physical education in Uzice High School was made.

Open access

Vladan Vukašinović, Dragan Strelić, Saša Vajić and Violeta Šiljak

Summary

Observing the development of physical training classes of the Army throughout history, from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Armed Forces of today, it can be said that, in addition to other program segments, gymnastics was the fundamental factor of physical exercise in the overall process of practical and military training. This development was accompanied by frequent changes in the realization of physical training (program contents, number of hours, methodical procedure, etc.), which again depended on the needs of the army, in other words, on the objective of the training - which was aimed at achieving optimal physical abilities for the performance of military duties in all circumstances. The first written facts about the use of gymnastics in the Army of the Principality of Serbia originate from the period of the founding of the Artillery School (in 1850, a predecessor of the Military Academy), where the basis of physical training consisted of the following contents: fighting, gymnastics, swimming, fencing and riding. A little later, in 1867, within the physical training, gymnastic exercises were performed and were the forerunners of today's morning workout, which is even today an integral part of the training of members of the Army of Serbia. The problem of this research work relates to the implementation of the development of gymnastics in the process of training from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Army.

The aim of this paper is to indicate the permanent implementation of the contents of gymnastics in the educational process of military structures as well as temporary changes according to the specific requirements of the upgrading of military and professional-specialized skills of military personnel in view of research of relevant materials and data collected. A historical method was used in this study. Research results show the importance and role of gymnastics as a basis of physical exercise for the improvement of the physical abilities of soldiers as the basic element of combat readiness.

Open access

Vladan Vukašinović, Violeta Šiljak, Sonja Kocić and Saša Vajić

Summary

The goal of this research was to provide insight into and systematisation of data relevant for the emergence and development of gymnastics in the Principality, and later Kingdom of Serbia, based on a review of monographic and serially published sources. The basic hypothesis was founded on the expectation that a direct link would be established between gymnastics, as the pivot of the programme, as well as its forms of physical exercise, and the emergence and development of organised physical exercising system in the civilian gymnastic and Sokol associations. In this research the historical method was applied. The results presented in this paper showed that gymnastics was the first and the chief component of the military and school physical exercising programs, as well as the significant role of gymnastics in the development of civilian gymnastic, Army and Sokol associations, and in the popularisation and development of modern sports at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Serbia. The development of gymnastics was accompanied by the provision of suitable exercising conditions, the organisation of professional courses for the gymnastics teachers and the publishing of appropriate literature.