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  • Author: Viola Tamášová x
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This research study concerns the trends in the lifelong learning of teachers including self-education as a form of teacher personal development. It explores the importance, role and objectives of lifelong learning, andragogic pedeutology, as well as the trends and further education of possibilities of teachers in Slovakia with regards to the forms of learning, qualification education and continuing education. We present the findings of a research survey on the educational needs of secondary vocational school (SVS) teachers as one of the results of the KEGA 005 DTI-4/2013 project in the study. We also present the research objectives, research questions, research sample of SVS teachers, research methods and instruments. In addition to presenting the findings of the current and updated education needs of SVS teachers in the sample and their interpretation, we formulate the research conclusions on the educational needs of SVS teachers as one of the results of the KEGA 005 DTI-4/2013 project.


Introduction:The theoretical-empirical study is based on two particular case studies of families bringing up children from institutional care. It deals with the real needs of foster families, with the foster parents’ perception of fostering and their experiences from the time spent with children in foster care, about the children’s behaviour in adverse situations, which the foster parents must deal with in the period of the child’s adaptation to the new environment of their households. The authors accentuate the importance of communication and emotional education from the aspect of personality development of children placed into new families. These children should be prepared for moving from a known into an unknown environment. In the conclusions, the authors give several specific recommendations within the framework of semantic categories dealt with in the chapters and subchapters of the study.

Methods:The study is based on a theoretical analysis of the presented issues. For the purposes of the research, the following research methods were used

- Content analysis of official documents (job description of social workers in foster family care).

- Case studies of two clients of the offices of Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Curatorship in the field offices of Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family in Nitra and Bratislava Self-Governing Regions carried out in 2018.

- Logical operations - analysis, synthesis, comparison.

- Interviews with foster carers (Family 1 and Family 2) carried out throughout the whole year 2018.

- Generalization in semantic categories which, at the same time, are the titles of the chapters and subchapters bellow, and also in the conclusions and recommendations for foster care and the social practice.

Results:For personal development, children need relationships with others. Maternal and paternal love, and care are the basic elements of these relationships - as confirmed in the interviews with foster parents. Alongside with biological parenthood, the so-called “psychological parenthood” has an important role to play. The role of a psychological parent can be filled by the members of own (i.e. biological) family as well as by adoptive parents, foster parents, the biological parents’ partners (stepmothers and stepfathers) and - under certain conditions - also by personnel in facilities of social care. Their psychological needs and the extent of their satisfaction determine what they will experience and how they will feel.

Discussion:It is important to prepare parents to accept the fact that foster parenthood is different from biological parenthood. Prospective foster parents often come to the offices of Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Curatorship with the opinion that not even biological parents are being prepared for their parental roles. Foster parents already having biological children argue - as it follows from the interviews carried out throughout the research - that they are experienced parents and, so, they can bring up foster children as well. They do not realize that foster children bring something new that biological children have never experienced. Biological and foster parenthood are definitely not the same.

Conclusions:In the conclusions, the authors point out that children in foster care identify with their parents’ values and opinions. For children who have faced significant adversity in their lives, it is beneficial if the family environment and education are harmonious. Such good conditions can have a positive impact on the children’s entire future lives. In the process of adaptation, the whole network of relationships within the family must be re-structuralized, which requires well-prepared family members.


Introduction: A certain degree of stress is present in everyone’s life and young people are not an exception. Most of them show a certain degree of resilience and can cope with stressful situations without any difficulties, however there is a group of youth who live in toxic environments and need help. If there is a risk of failure due to the intensity of stressors; external formal and informal support have a great role to play as they have the potential to prevent negative developmental outcomes.

Purpose: The authors’ intention was to make a review of available literature on the current issues of resilience research with a focus on the importance of protective factors in young people’s lives – especially when they are exposed to adversity. An emphasis is placed on the vital role of social support to individuals provided by schools as well as social services.

Methods: In the presented literature review, multiple formal search methods including hand searching of key journals; electronic searching of journal databases and subject specific websites; reference scanning; and citation tracking were used.

Conclusion: Individuals commonly demonstrate some level of resilience, yet most of them are able to deal with stressful situations without any harm. On the other hand, if the adversity is too high, the presence of social support provided by their social environment is important. In this context, good relationships in general and sufficient external protective factors provided by their social environment (schools, school psychologists, institutional social and health service providers) are important.


Resilience is an individual’s capacity to recover, adapt, and keep mental balance and normal functioning when exposed to significant adversity. This competence plays an important role in one’s life because it increases the probability of achieving success in various spheres of life. Schools can foster students’ resilience by providing a positive school environment and a sufficient number of protective factors, but it is the subjective interpretation of conditions and experiences rather than the exposure to them that is significant. The main objective of this research was to study to what extent school satisfaction, i.e. subjective interpretation of the school climate, influenced the level of students’ resilience. Not all our findings are compatible with the results of other studies. Despite the limits of our research, its results can serve as a basis for further work as not much has been done in the field of resilience research in Slovakia.


Introduction: Negative parental behaviour is among the significant risk factors that can have a negative impact on an individual’s development. In certain contexts, when appropriate protective factors are available, individuals deal with adversity better and it does not come to a decrease in their social performance nor their achievement in various spheres of life.

Purpose: The purpose of the presented paper is to provide a literature review on the role of resilience in dealing with harsh circumstances when negative parental behaviour occurs in a family.

Methods: In the study, the traditional desk research method was used to gather data.

Conclusions: Exposure to negative parental behaviour – including abuse and neglect, as well as domestic violence, can have detrimental consequences for children’s health and welfare. Under such circumstances, protective factors available to children play a significant role. Exposure to negative parental behaviour, including abuse and neglect, as well as domestic violence, can have detrimental consequences for children’s health and welfare. Under such circumstances, protective factors available to children play a significant role. If a family fails to protect a child or even represents a risk factor in the child’s life, the importance of other social institutions, such as schools, church, peer groups, etc., increases, as both internal and external protective factors are important. They can provide children at risk with support, help them develop own coping strategies and foster their resilience in order to overcome significant adversity in their families without serious harm. An individual’s resilience is a decisive factor in the process of dealing with threatening situations.


The proposed study deals with early reading literacy development of pre-school age children. A special attention is paid to the promotion of reading in family environment. Children’s relationship to reading starts developing before entering school, therefore, we consider families, alongside with intentional reading development in kindergartens, to be the basic indicators of the development of children’s relationship to reading and to books in general. The results of our quantitative research reflect the current situation in reading literacy development of pre-school age children in Slovakia, in particular families, and from the point of view of both the participating parents and their children.