François Rigo, Thomas Andrianne and Vincent Denoël
The cubic translation model is a well know tool in wind engineering, which provides a mathematical description of a non-Gaussian pressure as a cubic transformation of a Gaussian process. This simple model is widely used in practice since it offers a direct evaluation of the peak factors as a function of the statistics of the wind pressure data. This transformation is rather versatile but limited to processes which are said to be in the monotonic region. For processes falling outside this domain, this paper describes an alternative which is based on the physics of the wind flow. First, it is shown, with a classical example of a flow involving corner vortices on a flat roof, that the pressure data which does not meet the monotonic criterion is in fact associated with a bimodal distribution. Then, the proposed approach is to decompose this data into the two governing modes (slow background turbulence and fast corner vortices) and apply the usual translation model to each of them.
François Tubez, Bénédicte Forthomme, Jean-Louis Croisier, Olivier Brüls, Vincent Denoël, Julien Paulus and Cédric Schwartz
To meet the demand of a player’s entourage (e.g., coaches and medical staff), it is important for the biomechanics specialist to perform repeatable measures. To the best of our knowledge, to date, it has not been demonstrated whether similar results are obtained between two sessions of testing or between laboratory and field sport kinematic protocols with regard to the tennis serve. This study had two primary aims. First, the inter-session repeatability of biomechanical variables of a tennis serve was evaluated. Second, the differences between laboratory and field evaluations were studied. Thirteen national tennis players (ITN 3) performed the same 28 markers’ set laboratory test twice two weeks apart, and other thirteen national players (ITN 3) performed two 4 markers’ set tests both in the laboratory and on an official tennis court one week apart. A 3D motion system was used to measure lower-limb, pelvis, trunk, dominant arm and racket kinematics. A force plate was used to evaluate kinetics of legs’ drive in the laboratory. A personal method based on a point scoring system was developed to evaluate the ball landing location accuracy. We observed that the majority of the studied variables were acceptable for excellent relative reliability for the inter-session analysis. We also showed that the impact of the laboratory versus field context on the player’s serve was limited