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Rajesh Kumar, Harish Kumar, Anil Kumar and Vikram

Long Term Uncertainty Investigations of 1 MN Force Calibration Machine at NPL, India (NPLI)

The present paper is an attempt to study the long term uncertainty of 1 MN hydraulic multiplication system (HMS) force calibration machine (FCM) at the National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI), which is used for calibration of the force measuring instruments in the range of 100 kN - 1 MN. The 1 MN HMS FCM was installed at NPLI in 1993 and was built on the principle of hydraulic amplifications of dead weights. The best measurement capability (BMC) of the machine is ± 0.025% (k = 2) and it is traceable to national standards by means of precision force transfer standards (FTS). The present study discusses the uncertainty variations of the 1 MN HMS FCM over the years and describes the other parameters in detail, too. The 1 MN HMS FCM was calibrated in the years 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and the results have been reported.

Open access

Helen Hughes, Vikram Swaminathan, Alice Pellegrini and Riccardo Audisio

Abstract

Cancer incidence increases with age. With an ageing population, the burden of cancer in older people is set to increase significantly in the coming decades. This is a heterogeneous group with wide variations in health and functional status separate from chronological age. Data suggest that historically this patient cohort have poorer outcomes and have been under-represented in clinical cancer trials. There is an emerging body of evidence to help guide treatment; however, ongoing research is needed to develop comprehensive evidence-based guidelines and identify treatment regimens, which are suitable for frailer patients. In this article, we review the current field of geriatric oncology. We highlight that age is not a contradiction to cancer treatment but geriatric assessment is needed to identify which treatment a patient may tolerate and benefit from.

Open access

Usha Damodharan and M. Vikram Reddy

Abstract

The accumulation and translocation of trace metals in soil and in sugarcane crop irrigated with treated effluents from sugar industry compared to soil and sugarcane crop irrigated with bore-well water were determined. In the present study the impact of irrigation with treated effluent from the sugar industry on the trace metal contamination of sugarcane juice was assessed. It revealed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn in the soil of fields irrigated with effluent and in juice from sugarcane grown on such fields were higher than those from bore-well water irrigated fields. The concentrations of trace metals in treated effluent exceeded the permissible limits of the Indian standards (Central Pollution Control Board-2000). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in juice of sugarcane grown on fields irrigated with effluent also exceeded the permissible limits of Indian standards and WHO/FAO expert committee recommendations. Their concentrations in juice of sugarcane grown in fields irrigated with bore-well water were within the limits of safety, except for Cd. The transfer factor for Zn was considerably higher than those of the other trace metals. The metal concentrations of sugarcane juice showed significant correlations with those of soil, which was not the case when bore well water was used for irrigation.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Кulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) in Indian women using various behavioural interventions during pregnancy, which primarily aim to observe the effects on obesity markers and weight retention. In this experimental study, one hundred and forty pregnant women underwent interventions in 5 groups, control (C), diet (D), home exercise (HE), supervised exercise (SE) and supervised exercise with diet (SED), from pregnancy through delivery with 2 months follow-up post-delivery. The outcome measures were GWG and baby birth weight. A one-way ANOVA indicated no differences in the mean GWG between groups (12.39±4.71 kg, p=0.947). The control group had the most (50%) and both the supervised exercise groups had the fewest (32%) women who gained above the recommended GWG, followed by the diet group (33.3%). The D and HE groups had the most women who gained within the GWG range, while both the SE and SED groups had the most women who gained below the GWG range. However, these results did not affect the birth weight between the groups (mean 2.96 kg±0.40, p=0.203). In women with normal BMIs, (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), the diet group had the most effective maintenance of adequate GWG, with 15%, 55%, and 30% of the women gaining above, within, and below the recommended GWG, respectively. The SE and SED groups had the least postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 2 months, followed by the HM, D and C groups; i.e., the results showed a trend in the desired direction clinically, although they were not statistically significant (p=0.12). Supervised exercise can be effectively used as a pregnancy intervention to prevent excess GWG in Indian women. Diet counselling was found to be the next best intervention in combination with exercise, as well as for women with normal BMI.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity and diet during prenatal period and its effect on gestational weight gain (GWG), BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and post-partum weight retention (PPWR).

Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study (pre-post comparison) with 45 pregnant women having singleton pregnancy of >16 weeks of gestation, BMI>18.5 Kg/m2 and having a mobile phone. They were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=12 each; compliance rate 80%) (i.e.) exercise (n=12), exercise with diet advise (n=12) and control (n=12) group. Exercise groups attended weekly antenatal exercise sessions at the hospital during pregnancy; diet group received regular diet counseling followed by mobile text-messages (reminder, motivational, guidelines and benefits) to maintain adequate diet. The data was analyzed using IBM-SPSS software.

Results: Exercise groups gained less weight then control. Similarly, had mean GWG less as compared to control group though not statistically significant. The mean WC changes were significant amongst the groups with the exercise groups having least gain in WC (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Adopting an active lifestyle along with proper diet care can prevent development of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in Indian pregnant women which could prevent them from other associated lifestyle diseases in future.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a home based physical activity intervention during pregnancy on weight and various obesity markers resulting in metabolic syndrome in future. Methods: The paper presents a pilot experimental study (pre-post comparison) from a larger ongoing trial, with40 pregnant women (20 each) having singleton pregnancy of >16 weeks of gestation, BMI >18.5 Kg/m2 and declared fit by gynecologist for physical activity during pregnancy. They were assigned to either home exercise group receiving antenatal weight loss intervention delivered via 2 exercise demonstration sessions and informative brochures with advised regular 30 minutes walking during pregnancy, while control group was advised once at initial recruitment for maintaining active lifestyle during pregnancy. The data was analyzed using IBM-SPSS-(version 21) software. Results: Though the exercise group had less weight gain and weight retention than the control group, the pregnancy home intervention alone was not effective in controlling obesity parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (W/H).Conclusion: Home based pregnancy exercise intervention should include other adjunct components, which could be diet advice or timely supervised exercise sessions to have appreciable obesity control during pregnancy.