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Vesna Radović

Recommendations for Use of Free Light Chain Assay in Monoclonal Gammopathies

The serum immunoglobulin free light chain assay measures levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains. There are three major indications for the free light chain assay in the evaluation and management of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders. In the context of screening, the serum free light chain assay in combination with serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation yields high sensitivity, and negates the need for 24-hour urine studies for diagnoses other than light chain amyloidosis. Second, the baseline free light chains measurement is of major prognostic value in virtually every plasma cell disorder. Third, the free light chain assay allows for quantitative monitoring of patients with oligosecretory plasma cell disorders, including AL, oligosecretory myeloma, and nearly twothirds of patients who had previously been deemed to have non-secretory myeloma. In AL patients, serial free light chains measurements outperform protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. In oligosecretory myeloma patients, although not formally validated, serial free light chains measurements reduce the need for frequent bone marrow biopsies. In contrast, there are no data to support using free light chain assay in place of 24-hour urine electrophoresis for monitoring or for serial measurements in plasma cell disorders with measurable disease by serum or urine electrophoresis.

Open access

Jelena Kralj, Dragan Radović, Vesna Tutiš and Davor Ćiković

Migration of Central and East European Acrocephalus Warblers at the Eastern Adriatic Coast: An Analysis of Recoveries

Migration routes and origins of the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Great Reed Warbler (A. arundinaceus) and Sedge Warbler (A. schoenobaenus) populations migrating through the eastern Adriatic coast were investigated by analysing recoveries of birds ringed or found at two eastern Adriatic wetlands during autumn migration. There were 75, 104 and 63 long-distance recoveries for these three species, respectively. Great Reed Warblers from central and eastern Europe and Sedge Warblers from countries surrounding the Baltic Sea use the eastern Adriatic wetlands as stopover sites and continue their migration across the Mediterranean. Some Great Reed Warblers use south-western route during their return migration. Reed Warblers of unknown origin, presumably from eastern Europe continue their migration through south-western route to Spain (mean distance - 1329.3 ± 118.0 km, n = 20; mean azimuth - 251.05 ± 4.91°, n = 20; mean velocity - 63.25 km/day, n = 16). Local breeding Reed Warblers migrate southeast along the eastern Mediterranean (azimuth 117.53°). Eastern Adriatic coast represents a crossroads for migratory warblers using south-western, south-eastern and central Mediterranean flyways.

Open access

Zoran Mijušković, Vesna Radović, Janko Pejović, Ljiljana Tukić, Slobodan Marjanović and Jelica Stojanović

Free Light Chains of Immunoglobulin as a Prognostic Factor for Some Plasmaproliferative Diseases

Quantitation of monoclonal immunoglobulins and their fragments is used for monitoring the plasmaproliferative disease course and the effect of therapy. The aim of free light chains examination was to evaluate the significance of the FLC ratio as a prognostic factor for remission, progression and survival in different disease groups. The concentrations of immunoglobulins and free light chains were measured by an immunonephelometric method on a »SIEMENS« DADE BN II analyser with reagents (Freelite, The Binding Site, UK). In this examination 151 patients from 3 different disease groups: 1. Light chain disease or Bence Jones myeloma (37), 2. Biclonal gammopathy with FLC (23) and 3. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (91), were investigated during a period of 7 years. The reference interval for FLC ratio is 0.26-1.65. According to the International Staging System for multiple myeloma, a serum FLC ratio of <0.03 or >32 was taken as abnormal. The patients with light chain disease and biclonal gammopathy with FLC with an abnormal FLC ratio and a combination of adverse risk factors (76.7%) had median survival times of 22-30 months, versus patients with a normal or slightly varied FLC ratio without adverse risk factors (23.3%) with median survival times of 39-51 months. About 38% of patients who had shown lowered free light chains values by more than 50% under therapy, achieved disease remission in the light chain disease and biclonal gammopathy with FLC groups. In the group of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, 66.0% had a normal or slightly modified FLC ratio which corresponds to low and low-intermediate risk of disease progression, as opposed to 34.0% with an abnormal FLC ratio (<0.25 or >4) which corresponds to high and high-intermediate risk. An abnormal FLC ratio in the examined groups could be an independent risk factor for progression and poorer disease prognosis.

Open access

Dragan V Ilić, Kosovka Obradović-Đuričić, Vesna Medic, Srđan Poštić, Stanislava Z Gorjanović, Ferenc Pastor and Katarina Radović


Background: Free radicals (FR) occur in oral cavity where lot of food was transferred to through entire life under specific saliva conditions. Many enzymes, microorganism, alcohol beverages, nicotine and other harmful or indifferent substances when in contact to oral tissues might provoke oxidation process under specific condition creating FRʼs. The similar role might have various dental materials.

Aim: Of the study was to record the level of antioxidant (AO) activity of several permanent (P) luting cements alone or combined with quercetin AO substance.

Materials/Methods: P cements were Zn-phosphate, Zn-polycarboxilate, GIC and composite resin cement. They were prepared as original prescription and their variant by 1%weight addition of quercetin. AO activity of cements was measured by HPMC test evaluated by Student t test.

Results: There were statistically significant differences among Zn-phosphate, Zn-polycarboxilate and resin dental cements (p ˃ 0,05). GIC displayed significantly higher AO values (p < 0,01) versus other three cements. There were no difference in AO capacity between sample of original P cements and their corresponding quercetin variants (p ˃ 0,05).

Conclusions: Conventional GIC displayed the most powerful AO activity among P luting cements. Addition of 1% antioxidant quercetin did not improve AO capacity of investigated cements.