Slagjana Simeonova-Krstevska, Brankica Krstevska, Valentina Velkoska-Nakova, Marija Hadji Lega, Igor Samardjiski, Vladimir Serafimoski, Vesna Livrinova, Irena Todorovska and Aneta Sima
Introduction: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) often deliver newborns large for their gestational age (LGA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lipid parameters in the second half of pregnancy on foetal growth in GDM pregnancies.
Material and methods: In two hundred consecutive women with GDM the age, body mass index before pregnancy, body mass index before delivery, gestational week of GDM diagnosis, lipid parameters after 24 weeks of pregnancy, fasting glycaemia, HbA1c in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and baby birth weight were analyzed.
Results: Of the 200 GDM pregnancies, 50 (25%) women delivered LGA newborns, 135 (67.5%) women delivered newborns appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and 15 (7.5%) women delivered newborns small for gestational age (SGA). Maternal triglyceride levels and HbA1c in the second trimester were higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower, in the LGA group than in the AGA group (3.8 ± 1.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 mmol/L, 6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 5.5 ± 0.8%, and 1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L, p < 0.05). Also, maternal triglyceride levels and HbA1c in the second trimester were significantly higher in the SGA group than in the AGA group (3.8 ± 1.9 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 mmol/L and 6.8 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.8%, p < 0.05). Maternal triglycerides were independent predictors for delivering LGA newborns in GDM women.
Conclusion: In GDM pregnancies, maternal triglycerides in the second half of pregnancy may indentify women who will deliver LGA newborns. Thus, with good regulation of lipid profile, we can avoid macrosomia from GDM pregnancies.