Jelena Birovljev, Željko Vojinović and Vera Mirović
When and how will one country take care of its workers who are left due to their injury, illness, death or old age without ability to care for their existence, and who contributed most of their life as tax payers. The role of the social system is just that. Social systems of intergenerational solidarity operate for decades in all European countries, regardless of their political and economic structure and level of development. Number of employees within a pension system is dependent on many factors, but it is also independent compared to the category of pensioners and possibilities of functioning of the pension system. The total number of beneficiaries directly derived from the number of employees in some earlier period, while the possibility of pension payments vary depending on the current number of workers. Some categories may behave differently in relation to the total number of employed in an economic system, but the functioning of the pension system is depending on this indicator. In Serbia, for years the number of deaths exceeded the number of births, large-scale migration of citizens, the progress of medical science as a factor of increased life expectancy of people, higher rates of unemployment, longer years of service until retirement and some other less significant factors influenced the disproportion in the number of employees in relation to the number of pensioners. This resulted in a very poor state of the pension system and caused the question of its future functioning. A social problem is getting more difficult to resolve, in quality and quantitative terms, because its main source of inflow of funds is in constant decline while expenditures are increased.
In a research paper, the authors provide an empirical approach to taxes and economic growth in the United States in the period 1996-2016. The basic goal is to explore how taxes affect economic growth. The subject of the research is measuring the effects of tax revenue growth and tax form as a personal income tax, corporate income tax and social security contributions on gross domestic product as a proxy for economic growth. Methodology framework includes several tests to clear the potential problem of heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, multicollinearity and specification of the model. Based on diagnostic tests, a regression model is adequately created where fundamental econometric procedures are applied. Correlation matrix reflects a strong and positive relationship between tax revenue growth and corporate income tax on the one side and gross domestic product growth, on the another side. Also, personal income tax and social security contributions are weakly related to gross domestic product growth. The model shows a significant effect of tax revenue growth and social security contributions, while personal income tax and corporate income tax do not have a significant impact on gross domestic product growth. Interestingly, personal income tax as the main tax form in the tax structure of the United States has no significant impact on economic growth compared to social security contributions which percentage share is lesser.