Ageing, Arterial Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Diet
For three decades we followed up for longevity indicators, including diet, arterial blood pressure, and body mass index 379 mobile, long-living persons from Croatia, now aged 70 to 92 years, of whom 167 men aged (78.6±4.0) years and 212 women aged (77.9±4.1) years. One hundred and ninety-five were from the continental and 184 from the coastal Croatia. The participants were examined in 1972, 1982, and again in 2006/7. Changes in body mass index (BMI), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and in answers to our Food Frequency Questionnaire about dietary habits were analysed using log-linear models. Over the last 24 years of aging (age 55 to 78 years) the subjects showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass and height and a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure and BMI showed no significant changes over this period. Consumption of preserved and fresh meat, bread, and starch (potato, pastry and rice) dropped significantly with age, while the consumption of fish, fresh and cooked vegetables, fruit, and dairy products significantly increased. These dietary changes were not associated with changes in the systolic and diastolic ABP. About 80 % were overweight (BMI >25 kg m-2) throughout the follow-up, even though their body mass dropped significantly after the age of 55. However, their survival suggests that BMI may not be the best indicator of longevity or healthy aging.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most common cancers. It is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages, indicating on need for new diagnostic markers. Th e aim of this study was to determine systemic and fecal values of IL- 17 and IL-33 in patients with CRC and the relationship with clinicopathological aspects of disease. Th e blood samples and feces liquid fraction of 50 patients with CRC were analyzed. Serum and fecal levels of IL-33 and IL-17 were measured using sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Fecal levels of IL-33 and IL-17 were increased in CRC patients with poor tumor tissue diff erentiation. Serum IL-33 and fecal IL-17 were increased in patients with presence of lung/liver metastasis or peritoneal carcinomatosis, respectively, while enhanced fecal IL-33 was detected only in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Positive correlation between IL-33 and IL-17 values in sera and feces, respectively was also observed. We believe that increased local values of IL-33 and IL-17, reflected trough higher fecal concentration, in CRC patients with poor tumor tissue differentiation and with presence of lung/liver metastasis or peritoneal carcinomatosis may be considered as a sign of the tumor’s malignant progression and, consequently, of a poor prognosis for patients.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) represents chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Immune response plays an important role in disease genesis and progression. Activated leukocytes secrete several cytokines that actively regulate the inflammatory response in UC. The aim of this study was to determine levels of cytokines IL-17, IL-27, IFN-γ and TGF-β in patients with UC and to test them as biomarkers for disease.
The blood samples of 24 patients with ulcerative colitis without previous treatment and 37 healthy individuals were analyzed. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-27, IFN-γ and TGF-β were measured using sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.
Serum levels of IL-17, IL-27, IFN-γ and TGF-β were increased in patients with UC, compared to healthy controls (p=0.022; p=0.001; p=0.001; and p=0.002; respectively). Ratios of cytokines IL-27/IL-17, IFN-γ/TGF-β and IL-17/TGF-β were significantly higher in group of patients with UC (p=0.002; p=0.002; p=0.003; respectively). Serum value of TGF-β higher than 20 pg/ml presents a highly sensitive and specific marker for UC.
We believe that increased production and predominance of immunosupressive TGF-β may represent compensatory mechanism for ongoing pro-inflammatory processes in UC.