Bluetongue, a vector-born disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, is considered to be one of the most important diseases of domestic ruminants. The first outbreak of bluetongue in Serbia was reported in 2001, when BTV serotype 9 was identified in sampled materials. In 2014, outbreak of BTV-4 in Serbia caused considerable economic losses affecting sheep, cattle and goats. During this outbreak, BTV-4 was recorded in 644 outbreaks within 49 municipalities, part of 17 administrative regions. From the total number of sheep kept in areas affected by bluetongue (n=1 748 110), 2 083 cases (0.2%) were proven to be BTV-4 infected. Total of 206 infected cattle and 24 infected goats were reported during this investigation period, which represents 0.06% and 0.03% of the total number of cattle and goats kept in affected areas, respectively. The highest incidence of infected sheep, cattle and goats was recorded on the territory covered by veterinary institute of Nis. Recorded lethality in cattle, sheep and goats was 18.45% (n=38), 48.10% (n=1002) and 54.17% (n=13), respectively. The peak of the outbreak was in September and October when 94.43% of the confirmed positive cases, regardless of the species, was recorded. Monitoring of bluetongue disease in Serbia relies on active surveillance programmes aimed at: (i) identification and tracing of susceptible and potentially infected animals and (ii) detection, distribution and prevalence of insect vectors. Vaccination of sheep is planned to be implemented as a control measure against bluetongue in Serbia.
Milorad Mirilović, Branko Velebit, Spomenka Djurić, Branislav Vejnović, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nada Tajdić and Dragan Rogožarski
Critical indicators of intensive production in hog raising are continuity of production, high level of produced series-tours, application of the most contemporary technological achievements without any turnover of capital, high merchandise turnover, and intensive usage of the reproduction potential of breeding material. Production of piglets represents one of the most essential phases in the production of pork meat. In spite of genetic factors, duration of interval wean-conception is one of the basic factors in determination of bringing forth indexes and number of piglets per litter. In order to recognize production costs of piglets completely we found nutrition costs for piglets and sows represent 61%, while other costs such as personal incomes, veterinary services, water, energy, losses, and amortization represent 39% of total costs. On the basis of cost price per feeding day of a sow and the number of piglets per litter, production costs of piglets older than 28 days with an average body weight of 7 kg were determined. Price cost per piglet after weaning, with 7 kg average body weight, and 146 days of reproduction process accounts for 21,78 EUR if there are 10 piglets in a litter. If the reproductive cycle would last exactly the same and if successful conception would be achieved 25 days after weaning, production cost per piglet would be 23,79 EUR.
Honey bee mite Varroa destructor and microsporidium Nosema ceranae are currently considered the most important threats to honey bees and beekeeping. It has been believed that both N. apis and N. ceranae invade exclusively epithelial cells of the honey bee ventriculus. However, some fi ndings suggest that these microsporidia may infect other tissues of honey bees. There are indications that these pathogens could be found in honey bee haemolymph, as the medium for its distribution to anatomically distant tissues. Knowing that V. destructor being an ectoparasitic mite feeds on the honey bee’s haemolymph, the aim of this study was to investigate if DNA of Nosema spp. microsporidia could be found in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor.
The study was conducted on bee haemolymph and V. destructor mites from 44 Apis mellifera colonies. From each hive five mite individuals and 10 μL of haemolymph (from 4-5 bees) were used as samples for DNA isolation and PCR detection of Nosema spp.
The DNA of N. ceranae was confi rmed in 61.36% of V. destructor mites and 68.18% of haemolymph samples. This is the first report of N. ceranae DNA in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor mites. The finding of DNA of N. ceranae in V. destructor could be interpreted as the result of mite feeding on N. ceranae infected bee haemolymph. However, for a full confi rmation of the vector role of V. destructor in spreading of nosemosis, further microscopy investigations are required for the detection of spores in both investigated matrices (haemolymph and V. destructor internal tissues).
Zoran Stanimirović, Uroš Glavinić, Marko Ristanić, Nevenka Aleksić, Nemanja Jovanović, Branislav Vejnović and Jevrosima Stevanović
Colony losses, including those induced by the colony collapse disorder, are an urgent problem of contemporary apiculture which has been capturing the attention of both apiculturists and the research community. CCD is characterized by the absence of adult dead bees in the hive in which few workers and a queen remain, the ratio between the brood quantity and the number of workers is heavily disturbed in favor of the former, and more than enough food is present. Robbing behavior and pests usually attacking the weakened colony do not occur. In the present paper, the causes of the emergence of this problem are discussed, as well as the measures of its prevention.
The following factors, which lead to colony losses, are analyzed: shortage of high-quality food (pollen and honey); infestation with parasites, primarily with Varroa destructor, and mixed virus infections; bacterial infections (American and European foulbrood), fungal infections (nosemosis and ascosphaerosis) and trypanosomal infections (lotmariosis); and, finally, general management of the apiary.
Certain preventive measures are proposed: (1) providing ample high-quality forage and clean water, (2) avoiding sugarisation, i.e. superfluous use of sugar syrup, (3) meeting the nutritional needs of the colony, (4) when feeding bees, taking care of the timing and the composition of diet, avoiding pure sugar syrup which in excessive quantities may induce energetic and oxidative stress, (5) when there is a shortage of natural feed – honey in the brood chamber – use sugar syrup with natural/artificial supplements to avoid protein starvation, (6) organized control of V. destructor in the colonies is obligatory due to its vector role, and (7) compliance with hygienic and sanitary measures and principles of good apiculture practice and management in apiaries. To conclude, all preventive measures are feasible in compliance with rules and regulations concerning regular spring and autumn bee health monitoring by licensed veterinarians, who can propose adequate treatments if necessary.
Ivan Milošević, Anita Radovanović, Luković Jelena Danilović, Tijana Lužajić Božinovski, Sophie Sourice-Petit, Sarah Beck-Cormier, Jerome Guicheux, Vejnović Branislav and Milica Kovačevič Filipović
Maternal hypothyroidism in its overt form affects skeletal development of the offspring, but these data are not available for the subclinical form which is becoming very frequent among pregnant women. We hypothesized that the subclinical form of hypothyroidism in rat dams, infl uences the process of offspring endochondral ossifi cation affecting proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoclasts and osteoblasts in pups. Seven-day-old male pups (n=18) derived from control dams and dams treated with a low dose (1.5 mg/L) or high dose (150 mg/L) of propylthiouracil in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation were used. Histomorphometric analysis of pups’ tibia proximal growth plate, expression of mRNA, immunohistochemical and histochemical visualization of extracellular matrix components was performed. The length of the tibia was reduced in hypothyroid pups. Secretion of type 2 and 10 collagens in the subclinical and overt form were lower while the amount of glycosaminoglycans was higher when compared with controls. Down-regulated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase mRNA indicated altered osteoclasts function while lower expression of dentin matrix acid protein-1 mRNA and reduced synthesis of type 1 collagen accentuated a compromised bone formation in the overt form of hypothyroidism. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism had a negative effect on the differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and calcifi ed cartilage removal in 7-day-old pups. In addition, overt hypothyroidism had a negative effect on the proliferation of chondrocytes and deposition of osteoid. Both forms of hypothyroidism resulted in a decrease of tibia length due to changes in growth plate formation.