The Middle Miocene plant record from the wider Central Paratethys region (Central Paratethys, the North Alpine Foredeep, Carpathian Foredeep, the Swabian Alb and southern parts of the Bohemian Massif) was analysed by the Integrated Plant Record (IPR) vegetation analysis to assess major vegetation types. The plant assemblages at 27 sites accumulated under very different sedimentological settings and refl ect heterogeneous environments. Although of very different origin, the plant record delivers a fairly consistent signal towards subhumid sclerophyllous forests (ShSF) as the most likely major zonal vegetation unit for the Langhian/Serravallian. Today, such forests develop under seasonal climate with pronounced seasonal changes in precipitation. The fl oristic characteristics are outlined and the record is compared to that of the preceding and the following Miocene periods.
Zlatko Kvaček, Vasilis Teodoridis and Miroslav Radoň
The Oligocene palaeontological locality on Matrý Hill near Sebuzín in the České středohoří Mts., North Bohemia, belongs to the Děčín Formation and is dated to 30.8-24.7 Ma according to the regional stratigraphy. It has yielded, in addition to insects from the Heteroptera group, a fossil bee Apis petrefacta and palaeobatrachid frogs, also numerous plant remains. Their recovery began in 1996. The plant fossil assemblage consists mostly of leaf impressions, occasionally accompanied by casts or impressions of fruits. Noteworthy are records of a fern Woodwardia muensteriana, conifers Pinus cf. rigios, P. cf. hepios, Calocedrus suleticensis, Tetraclinis salicornioides, Torreya bilinica, cf. Cephalotaxus parvifolia and numerous angiosperms, e.g. Liriodendron haueri, Daphnogene cinnamomifolia, Platanus neptuni, Cercidiphyllum crenatum, Sloanea artocarpites, Ulmus pyramidalis, Celtis pirskenbergensis, Carya fragiliformis, C. quadrangula, Betula brongniartii, B. dryadum, Alnus rhenana, A. cf. kefersteinii, Carpinus grandis, Ostrya atlantidis, Acer crenatifolium, A. cf. palaeosaccharinum, A. integrilobum and Craigia bronnii. Several angiosperm foliage specimens of both monocots and dicots have not yet been identified to a particular genus and species. The fossil plant assemblage at Matrý corresponds to two vegetation types, i.e. a zonal riparian forest and zonal mixed mesophytic forest, as corroborated by the Integrated Plant Record vegetation analysis. The vegetation thrived under a humid climate, characterized by average values of MAT (13.4 °C), WMMT (23.8 °C), CMMT (3.6 °C) and MAP (1,117 mm). The Matry fossil flora is similar in composition to the flora of Žichov from the same Oligocene Děčín Formation in the České středohoří Mts.
Zlatko Kvaček, Vasilis Teodoridis, Marianna Kováčová, Ján Schlögl and Viliam Sitár
A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe