Due to the availability of the EQ-5D-5L instrument official translation into Slovenian its use is widespread in Slovenia. However, the health profiles obtained in many studies cannot be ascribed their appropriate values as the EQ-5D-5L value set does not yet exist in Slovenia. Our aim was to estimate an interim EQ-5D-5L value set for Slovenia using the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group on the basis of the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian TTO value set. Our secondary aim was to compare the interim values obtained with the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian values.
To obtain a Slovenian interim EQ-5D-5L value set, we applied the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group to the Slovenian EQ-5D-3L TTO value set. We examined the differences between values by comparing the mean 3L and 5L value scores and the distribution of values across all respondents.
By definition, 3-level and 5-level versions have the same range (from 1 to −0.495) and a health state coded 22222 in the 3-level version corresponds to 33333 in the 5-level version. While the addition of a “slight” severity level (22222) in the 5-level version has a low informational value, the addition of a “severe” health state (44444) covers larger range of the scale. The 5-level version results in fewer health states being valued below 0 and above 0.8.
The EQ-5D-5L value set, based on the crosswalk methodology, should be used until a value set for the EQ-5D-5L is derived from preferences elicited directly from a representative sample of the Slovenian general population.
The two primary objectives of this paper were (a) to develop first logically consistent TTO based EQ-5D-3L value sets for Slovenia and (b) to revisit earlier developed VAS based EQ-5D-3L value sets.
Between September 2005 and April 2006, face-to-face interviews with 225 individuals in Slovenia were conducted. Protocols from the Measurement and Value of Health study were followed closely. Each respondent valued 15 health states out of a total of 23. Model selection was informed by the criteria monotonicity/logical consistency. Predictive accuracy was assessed in terms of mean square difference between out-of-sample predictions and corresponding observed means, as well as Lin’s Concordance Correlation Coefficient.
Modelling was based on 2,717 VAS and 2,831 TTO values elicited from 225 respondents. A 6-parameter constrained regression model with a supplementary power term was selected for VAS and TTO value sets, as it produces monotonic values, and proved superior in terms of out-of-sample predictive accuracy over the tested alternatives.
This is the first EQ-5D-3L TTO based value set in Slovenia and the second in Central and Eastern Europe (besides Poland). It is also the first monotonic and logically consistent VAS value set in Central and Eastern Europe. Comparisons with Polish and UK TTO values show considerable differences, mostly due to mobility with having a substantially greater weight in Slovenia. The UK value set generally produces lower values and the Polish value set higher values for mild states.
In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
The purpose of this study is to analyse and present the causes of the differences in crude utilization rate in cardiac implantation electronic devices, specifically pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, across 5 European countries, with a specific emphasis on Slovenia.
Based on the results of the analysis of the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices across countries studied in MedtecHTA project, the targeted interviews were conducted to explain the factors that impact the differences and explain data in Slovenia.
The reasons for the differences in crude utilization rate across 5 European countries were multiple: the first group of differences refers to the coding system and linkages between coding and financing of health care. The second group of reasons can be qualitatively ascribed to the economic situation, financial situation in health care, and its impact on decision-making. The last reason is the non-existence of the golden rule for optimal crude utilisation rate.
It is evident that the differences in the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices among the countries are of organisational nature: they refer to the system of coding, the importance attached to correct coding practices, the link between coding and financing of health care as well as the availability of private clinics and private insurance. According to the interviews, the economic development of the country also impacts those differences, whereas the differences in clinical practice and guidelines are claimed not to play a role in the explanation of the differences.
Background and Purpose: Chronic diseases and associated co-morbidities are highly prevalent among elderly and are associated with an increase in health services utilization which in turn raises health care expenditures throughout industrialized societies. However, health care utilization in elderly is still inadequately understood, particularly regarding the differences among European jurisdictions. In our article, we use dataset of Wave 5 of SHARE survey to study the utilization of health care in older Europeans in 15 European countries.
Design/Methodology/Approach: We investigate relationships between factors such as age, gender, income, education and health variables and the utilization of various types of health services. We apply regression modeling to study the determinants of health utilization (different socioeconomic and health variables) of older people.
Results: We show some significant differences between determinants of health utilization in terms of probability and frequency of usage. We also explore patterns between welfare regimes, taking Eastern European jurisdictions as a reference category. Finally, we show that in a simple causal model the provision of formal and/or informal homecare serves as a complement to utilization of health care services.
Conclusion: Results of our article are important for the management of health care facilities in terms of health care usage by older people, and can be of value to health care providers and policy makers in the field.