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Vaia D. Raikou

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Uncorrected metabolic acidosis leads to higher death risk in dialysis patients. We observed the relationship between metabolic acidosis status and mortality rate in patients on renal replacement therapy during a median follow up time of 60 months.

Methods

We studied 76 patients on an on-line hemodiafiltration. The dialysis adequacy was defined by Kt/V for urea. The Framingham risk score (FRS) points were used to determine the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease. We examined the impact of high or low serum bicarbonate concentrations on mortality rate and on 10-year risk for coronary heart disease via the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox’s model was used to evaluate a combination of prognostic variables, such as dialysis adequacy defined by Kt/V for urea, age and serum bicarbonate concentrations.

Results

We divided the enrolled patients in three groups according to serum bicarbonate concentrations (< 20 mmol/L, 20-22 mmol/L and > 22 mmol/L). Kaplan-Meier survival curve for the impact of serum bicarbonate concentrations on overall mortality was found significant (log-rank = 7.8, P = 0.02). The prevalence of serum bicarbonate less or more than 20 mmol/L on high FRS (> 20%) by Kaplan-Meier curve was also found significant (log-rank = 4.9, P = 0.02). Cox’s model revealed the significant predictive effect of serum bicarbonate on overall mortality (P = 0.006, OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.12-1.98) in combination to Kt/V for urea and age.

Conclusion

Uncorrected severe metabolic acidosis, defined by serum bicarbonate concentrations less than 20 mmol/L, is associated with a 10-year risk for coronary heart disease more than 20% and high overall mortality in patients on renal replacement therapy.