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  • Author: V. V. Melnychuk x
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Abstract

New data about the fauna of nematodes of Baruscapillaria genus have been obtained which show that they parasitize domestic geese in the Poltava region of the Ukraine. It has been established that the species composition of Capillariidae is represented by two species—B. anseris (Madsen, 1945, Moravec, 1982) and B. obsignata (Madsen, 1945, Moravec, 1982). For the first time in the Ukraine, parasitisation with non-specific geese species of Capillariidae family, B. obsignata, have been substantiated. It was found that capillariosis of geese was more frequent in the co-invasions of the birds’ digestive channel; the prevalence of invasion was 41.97 %. According to the results of helminthological dissection and identification of isolated pathogens, 40 varieties of co-invasions were found, where nematodes of the Baruscapillaria genus were combined with cestodes of two species: Drepanidotaenia lanceolata (Bloch, 1782) and Tschertkovilepis setigera (Froehlich, 1789), as well as with nematodes of four other species: Аmidostomum anseris (Zeder, 1800), Trichostrongylus tenuis (Mehlis, 1846), Heterakis gallinarum (Schrank, 1788) and Heterakis dispar (Schrank, 1790). Most often, we recorded capillariosis as a part of two- (prevalence—17.75 %) and three-component (11.75 %) co-invasions, and the main coexisting helminths of Capillariidae from Baruscapillaria genus were nematodes A. anseris (prevalence 22.78 %) and H. dispar (14.15 %).

Abstract

Peculiarities of embryogenesis morphology and biometric parameters of Trichuris suis Schrank, 1788 eggs sampled from different organic substrates are described. The eggs of T. suis under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 27 °С reach the infectious stage in 40 days and pass through seven stages of embryogenesis. The study revealed significant differences in growth and development of eggs obtained from the nematode gonads and the faeces of infected animals (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758), according to length and width of eggs and eggshell plugs. The excreted T. suis eggs were shown to be better adapted to environment (survivability 96.6 ± 0.33 %), than the eggs obtained from the gonads of female nematodes (survivability 89.3 ± 0.33 %).

Abstract

Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758) is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3) on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01) and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01), and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001).

Abstract

Morphological characteristics were studied in adult and embryonic Amidostomum anseris (Zeder, 1800) obtained from domestic goose Anser anser domesticus Linnaeus, 1758. The studied characters included species-specific morphometric indices of male and female specimens and differential characters of sex-related dimorphism in that species. Stages and periods of embryonic development, and viability of the nematodes were studied at laboratory conditions. Size dimorphism in A. anseris was considerable, females were significantly larger (by 10.09–27.98 %) than males by 11 parameters. Additional metric characters were proposed to enhance effectiveness of differentiation of female and male A. anseris specimens. Under laboratory conditions, embryonic development of A. anseris occurs in four stages: blastomere cleavage; larval formation; formation of non-infective larvae I and II; formation of infective larva III which hatches from the egg. Infective larvae develop at 23 °С in six days, and their viability was up to 78.33 ± 2.08 %.

Abstract

Abundance and distribution of nematodes of the genus Trichuris Schrank, 1788 parasitizing domestic sheep (Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in Poltava, Kyiv and Zaporizhzhia Regions of Ukraine. Three species of Trichuris were found, Trichuris skrjabini Baskakov, 1924, Trichuris ovis Abildgaard, 1795 and Trichuris globulosa Linstow, 1901. Trichuris ovis and T. skrjabini were more common (54.9 and 35.7 %), whereas T. globulosa was relatively rare (9.4 %) in the studied material. New species-specific and sex-related morphological characters and metric indices were reviewed as useful in better identification of T. skrjabini, T. ovis and T. globulosa parasitizing sheep.

Abstract

Ukraine has to reform the spatial organization of power, which involves alteration of the administrative-territorial division in very difficult socio-economic and political conditions. Despite a great interest in the Ukrainian decentralization reform in scientific publications and media, the influence of chosen voluntary consolidation mode on the newly formed territorial communities, including their spatial configuration, economic potential and institutional capability, remains uncovered. Trying to shed some light on the issue, the authors made an attempt to reveal advantages and disadvantages of the selected model of reform on the example of the Perspective Plan of Territorial Communities Formation in Kyiv Region.

Abstract

Results of obtaining miscanthus polyploid lines using both classic and new dinitroanilines to improve productivity of biomass as well as quality for biofuel production are represented. All of compounds applied in the study appeared to be able to induce poyploidy in Miscanthus × giganteus.It was found that new antimitotics have a lower phytotoxicity level compared to classic dinitroani-lines. Ploidy level of obtained lines was confirmed by cytological studies using light microscopy. These lines are acclimatised for growing in open soil conditions. Currently, morphometric parameters of selected lines are being studied and analysed.