At given time, wisent’s metpopulation in Ukraine is in the state of resumption of biological characteristics of this species, which determines the need to control for the animals origin. Such studies assess the condition of each subpopulation, as well as to carry out the selection measures for conservation of the overall genetic variability of species. In modern conditions the success of wisent restoration depends on implementation of the national and international programs, the help of maecenas, the scale agitation among the peoples as well as the interest of users of hunting grounds and conservation areas.
Results of the investigations of changes in the number of hoof-animals in the Mountain Crimea in the period from 1980 to 2014 are presented in the article. It is found that the period of the animal numbers change is 7.5 years for red deer and 4.6 years for roe deer. The shortening of the period of the animal numbers change as compared with other populations is a defence mechanism under conditions of a continuous anthropogenic pressure.
V. M. Smagol, O. G. Babich, V. K. Kaminetskyi, V. L. Yarysh and V. O. Smagol
The succession of ungulate fauna was studied under conditions of artificially high density and limited residential area on the Biryuchy Island of the Azov-Sivash National Nature Park. Forming of inter-specific relationships between populations of the moufflon, red-deer and fallow-deer were revealed. The social hierarchy of the mentioned species, which are at the same trophic level, is determined. For the population of each species the factors influencing the dynamics of its number are given. Competition of species in steppe habitat is based solely on trophic relationships because the protective properties of the land are minimized. The forage base creates equal conditions for different species, since there is no woody vegetation in the steppe, which makes the large size of the red deer not important for the food obtaining. Concerning the fallow-deer, there is activation in reproductive potential, which is the part of the strategy in competition for resources and indicates its wider ecological lability in comparison with the red-deer. Meanwhile, a high level of adaptation to the conditions of the open steppe is noted in the moufflon, which (together with high reproductive capacity) rationally uses pasture potentials while the fallow-deer and red-deer have a certain level of stenophagy.
The research covers water area, island archipelagos and coastal line of the Antarctic Peninsula from 65°31ʹ S, 64°25ʹ W in the South to 65°03ʹ S, 63°53ʹ W in the North. There was time gap of 7 years between the researches (2011 and 2018), which allows to define tendencies in development of individual colonies and to make conclusion about success of existence of a given species. The work itself was carried out during the first half of January, that is in the time when the stage of brooding ends and the period of hatching starts. As of 2011, 12 nesting points of gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) with total number of 8,342 pairs were found in the region under investigation. Till 2018, quantity of the colony grew to 14, with total number of 14,105 pairs. For seven years, quantity of nesting points of aelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) almost did not change (4 colonies). Instead, total number of the species decreased somewhat: from 3559 pairsin 2011 to 3295 onesin 2018. Number of chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) in united stable locality for nesting also decreased from 26 pairsin 2011 to19 onesin 2018. Booth Island (65°04ʹ S, 64°02ʹ W) for chinstrap penguins and Green Island (65°19ʹ S, 64°09ʹ W) for gentoo penguins are the southern most points of nesting range of the species. Also, 7 colonies of antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis) were revealed in the region under investigation. For seven years from 2011 to 2018 total number of the species in the region under investigation grew from 190 pairs to 299, and in most cases the antarctics shag forms settlements jointly with penguins.