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  • Author: V. Ledecký x
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I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Severe spinal cord injuries (SCI), causing physical handicaps and accompanied by many serious complications, remains one of the most challenging problems in both, human and veterinary health care practices. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficits in a dog following SCI persists for the rest of its life and the affected animals display an image of permanent suffering. Diagnostics are based on: neurological examination, plain x-rays of vertebral column, x-rays of the vertebral column following intrathecal administration of a water-soluble contrast medium (myelography), x-rays of the vertebral column following epidural administration of a contrast medium (epidurography), computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, only limited therapeutic measures are available for the dogs with SCIs. They include: the administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) during the acute stage; early spinal cord decompression; stabilisation of vertebral fractures or luxations; prevention and treatment of complications, and expert rehabilitation. Together with the progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic events occurring after SCI, different therapeutic strategies have been instituted, including the local delivery of MPSS, the utilisation of novel pharmacological agents, hypothermia, and stem/precursor cell transplantation have all been tested in the experimental models and preclinical trials with promising results. The aim of this review is the presentation of the generally accepted methods of diagnostics and management of dogs with SCIs, as well as to discuss new therapeutic modalities. The research strategy involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from January 2001 to December 2017 using the term “spinal cord injury”, in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) in dogs are not frequent, but they are serious pathological conditions accompanied with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of SCI involves a primary insult, disrupting axons, blood vessels, and cell membranes by mechanical force, or causes tissue necrosis by ischemia and reperfusion. The primary injury is followed by a cascade of secondary events, involving vascular dysfunction, edema formation, continuing ischemia, excitotoxicity, electrolyte shifts, free radical production, inflammation, and delayed apoptotic cell death. The most frequent cause of SCI in dogs is an acute intervertebral disc extrusion, exogenous trauma or ischemia. Neurological symptomatology depends on the location, size and the type of spinal cord lesions. It is characterized by transient or permanent, incomplete or complete loss of motor, sensory, autonomic, and reflex functions caudal to the site of the lesion. In a case of partial spinal cord (SC) damage, one of the typical syndromes develops (e. g. Brown-Séquard syndrome, central SC syndrome, ventral SC syndrome, dorsal SC syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, or traumatic cauda equina syndrome). The severe transversal spinal cord lesion in the cervical region causes paresis or plegia of all four extremities (tetraparesis, tetraplegia); in thoracic or lumbosacral region, paresis or plegia of the pelvic extremities (paraparesis, paraplegia), i. e. sensory-motor deficit, urinary and foecal incontinence and sexual incompetence. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficit in dogs following severe SCI persists for the rest of their lives and animals display an image of permanent suffering. The research strategy presented here involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from Januray 2001 to December 2017 using the term “canine spinal cord injury” in the English language; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Exosomes are nanovesicles that are involved in inter-cellular communication and are secreted by many types of cells. Exosomes secreted by stem cells can effectively transport bioactive proteins, messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) organelles and play important roles in intercellular communication and the regulation of tissue regeneration. This transfer of bioactive molecules plays a main role in: tumor invasion and metastasis, immune and inflammation modulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neurobiology. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) exosomes provide new perspectives for the development of an off-the-shelf and cell-free MSC therapy for the treatment of cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis. This report describes the progress in exosome studies and potential clinical use for osteoarthritis treatment.

Open access

V. Ledecky, M. Hluchy, T. Liptak and M. Kuricova

Abstract

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease representing an important problem for many dog breeds worldwide. The screening for CHD and breeding programs have been ongoing for many decades but the incidence of disease have failed to be reduced to the expected level. The early diagnosis of CHD is paramount in order to facilitate the early management strategies and to prevent the breeding of the affected individuals. Generally in this area, the emphasis is placed on the radiographic evaluation process, however this is partly a subjective process suggested to be influenced by the experience of the observers. This study was designed to evaluate the interobserver agreement in CHD evaluation based on the Federation Cynologique International system (FCI system). Ten original radiographs were sent to five different groups of observers, from students to certified veterinarians. They were asked to evaluate the ventro-dorsal radiographs according to the FCI system which is the most common system used in Europe to give the final grades (A, B, C, D, E). The grades were converted to numbers and the data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA test. The results showed that only in 20% of the cases, the interobserver agreement was statistically higher in the group of the most experienced observers when compared to the less experienced group of observers. This means that the level of experience does not always lead to a higher agreement. This could be a problem of widespread objective evaluations of CHD. In addition, there are several different systems of evaluation used in various countries. It is necessary to understand the intention of dog owners, who when buying a dog may be planning its first breeding. Therefore, the “correct” or “incorrect” assessment of the CHD radiographs may not always result in the elimination of affected individuals. We do not know exactly the situation of the development of the hip in some breeds, because scrutineers are receiving only “negative radiographs” for evaluation. Many owners are very educated about hip and elbow dysplasia. It is a time to tell the scientific truth.