A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, Z. Vasilková, V. Vargová, M. Sumková and V. Krčméry
Helminth infections caused by Enterobius vermicularis have a cosmopolitan character and most often affect the paediatric pre-school and school age population. The presented study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the analyzed population of children in the Eastern Slovakia. The Graham’s scotch tape method was used to investigate the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in 390 specimens. The analyzed set consisted of 218 girls and 172 boys, divided by age into three groups - aged from 5 months to 2 years, aged from 3 to 6 years, and aged from 7 to 15 years. Investigation of perianal scotch tapes of children for the presence of E. vermicularis eggs revealed the prevalence of E. vermicularis was P = 3.59 %. Depending on the incidence of E. vermicularis infection, we detected no statistically signifi cant difference (p> 0.05). The prevalence of E. vermicularis in boys was P = 4.07 %, and in girls P = 3.21 %. The highest prevalence of E. vermicularis was recorded in the group of children aged from 3 to 6 years (P = 5.03 %). Most of the samples were positive at age 4 and 5. The lowest prevalence was in the group of children aged from 5 months to 2 years (P = 0.97 %), and the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the group of children aged from 7 to 15 was P = 3.91 %. The difference in the incidence of E. vermicularis infection among different age groups of children was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Enterobius vermicularis nematode infection and enterobiasis currently represents a major public health problem in Slovakia. At the present its occurrence is the most frequent in the paediatric population. Therefore it is important to introduce a targeted hygienic-epidemiological measure in children’s collectives, what also should include proper and effective diagnostics and frequent recurrent therapy.
A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, S. Jurišová, P. Jarčuška and V. Krčméry
Examinations of the set of 2,760 samples of human stools revealed the current epidemiological situation in the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitoses in Slovakia. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was P = 6.81 % out of which the protozoan infections was P = 2.64 % and helminthiases P = 4.17 %, in the representation of endoparasitic species Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis.
The species with the highest proportion from the protozoa was Entamoeba coli (P = 0.79 %) and from the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides (P = 3.73 %). The highest prevalence of protozoan infections (P = 3.27 %) was found in the age group 8 – 18 yearly and helminthic infections (P = 5.84 %) in the lowest age group of children at the age of 1 month to 7 years. Almost regularly, there was most frequently infection with Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbricoides. By comparison of all age categories, a high statistical significance of differences in the prevalence of helminthiases was found, which most frequently infected children aged from 1 month to 7 years (X2, p≤ 0.0001). The statistical significance of differences in the incidence of protozoan infections (X2, p≤ 0.01) and helminthiases (X2, p≤ 0.0001) was recorded between the compared regions of Slovakia (Western, Central and Eastern Slovakia) with the highest prevalence in the eastern region of Slovakia.
A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and V. Krčméry
The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs) as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts) and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts). In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 %) and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %). The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 %) and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %). No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts)/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp.) and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs) presented. In drained (condensed) stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts) or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.
P. Juriš, A. Dudlová, J. Fábry, J. Melter, M. Miškovská, E. Mindžáková, P. Jarčuška, V. Krčméry, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and D. Sysel
Faeces examination of hospitalised paediatric patients with respiratory diseases (recurrent and chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, contact with TBC, active TBC, rhinopharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, fluidothorax, pleuropneumonia) revealed the total prevalence of endoparasites of 19.85 %, out of which the prevalence of helminth was 7.35 %. Following genera, or species were represented Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria, Hymenolepis spp., Enterobius vermicularis. The total prevalence of protozoa was 12.50 % in the following representation: Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Isospora spp., Giardia spp. Out of helminthoses the greatest representation was in Ascaris lumbricoides 4.41 %, and out of protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. 6.62 %. In paediatric patients the increased levels of IgE antibodies were found for individual age groups as well as higher values of eosinophiles (Eo > 5 %), lymphocytes (Lym > 56 %), and Creactive protein (CRP > 8 mg.l−1). Statistically significantly (P < 0.05) higher level (above the reference values) of IgE, Eo, Lym were found in the patients with helminthoses.