Cairaeanthus gen. n. (Cestoda, Rhinebothriidea), with the Description of Two New Species from Dasyatis pastinaca in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
Two new species were identified among cestodes collected from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Their morphology corresponds in the most characters to the descriptions of Phyllobothrium lactuca van Beneden, 1850 and P. gracilis Wedl, 1855 by L. Borcea (Borcea, 1934) and T. P. Pogorel'tseva (Pogorel'tseva, 1960) from the same host and seas. However, some morphological characters of these cestodes (namely, the marginal loculi on the pedicellate bothridia, cephalic peduncle, absence of the apical sucker and post-poral testes, genital pore opening marginally, close to posterior end of proglottid) correspond to diagnosis of Rhinebothriidea. Since the species from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov did not fit diagnoses of any known genera currently belonging to Rhinebothriidea, the new genus, Cairaeanthus Kornyushin et Polyakova, gen. n., with two species, C. ruhnkei Kornyushin et Polyakova, sp. n. and C. healyae Kornyushin et Polyakova, sp. n., is established. Cairaeanthus gen. n. differs from Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 in absence of apical sucker, posteriorly bifid bothridia and vitelline fields interrupted by the ovary, not extending in the posterior end of the proglottid. The new genus can be distinguished from Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, Echeneibothium van Beneden, 1850, Rhabdotobothrium Euzet, 1953, Rhinebothroides Mayes, Brooks et Thorson, 1981, Scalithrium Ball, Neifar et Euzet, 2003 by the absence of facial loculi on the bothridia and by numerous vitelline follicles, stopping at the anterior margin of the ovary; from Rhodobothrium Linton, 1889 - by absence of post-poral testes, and from Spongiobothrium Linton, 1889 - by numerous vitelline follicles, stopping at the level of ovary. C. ruhnkei sp. n. differs from C. healyae sp. n. in the lengths of the strobila, the cephalic peduncle and the bothridia pedicel, in size of marginal loculi and the ovary, in the number of the proglottids and the testes in the proglottid, and in the structure of genital atrium. Two new species are differentiated also from the morphologically related species Phyllobothrium pastinacae Mokhtar-Mocamouri, Zamali, 1981. Examined type specimens of P. pastinacae were attributed to Rhinebothiidea based on a set of morphological characters. However, they appear to differ from all known Rhinebothriidea, including the species from the genera Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 and Cairaeanthus gen. n. Taxonomic position of P.pastinacae needs further identification.
Hymenolepidoid Cestodes (Cyclophyllidae, Hymenolepidoidae) of Pratincole (Glareola Pratincola) from the South of Ukraine
Four hymenolepidoid cestode species Glareolepis porale (Meggitt, 1927) Spassky, 1967; Wardium (s. l.) tauricum Kornyushin et Greben, sp. n.; Wardium (s. l.) sp. n.; and Echinocotyloides longirostris (Rudolphi, 1819) Kornyushin, 1983 from pratincole from the Southern Ukraine are discribed. The morphology of G. porale is described in details. An interesting new observation is that testes are lacking in female proglottides of G. porale; the structures described in literature as testes in hermaphroditic proglottides are, in fact, ovarian lobes. The new cestode species Wardium (s. l.) tauricum sp. n. is described. It is characterised by aploparaksoid hooks, 13-15 μm long, and conical armed cirrus, 20-22 μm long. Another cestode species, Wardium (s. l.) sp., is identified to the generic level only. It differs from all the species of the genus in the size and armament of the cirrus; however, no scolex was present in the material studied.
The Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals of Ukraine. Cestodes
Data related to cestodes (totally 17 species), registered in predatory mammals in Ukraine are given and summarized. The richest cestode fauna was found in the Polissya region (Zhitomir, Kiev, Chernigov, Sumy Oblasts), Carpathian region and Transcarpathia. A wide host range characterizes the majority of cestodes occurring in predatory mammals of Ukraine. They are registered in both canines (Canidae) and felines (Felidae). Cestodes of the fox (9 species) and wolf (11 species) were studied more comprehensively. Other species of predatory mammals were infected with 1 to 3 species of cestodes.
Wardium Ponticum Sp. N. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepidoidea), a Parasite of Pratincole (Glareola Pratincola) from the Black Sea Coast
The new species Wardium ponticum Kornyushin, Georgiev et Greben, sp. n. (Aploparksidae Mayhew, 1925) parasitic in pratincole (Glareola pratincola Linnaeus, 1766) from Bulgaria and Ukraine is described. The species is characterized by 10 aploparaksoid hooks, 9-10 mm long, and clearly differs from all congeneric species by the shape and armament of the cirrus.
The new cyclophyllidian species Wardium mackoifusa sp. n. (Aploparksidae Mayhew 1925), in the little gull (Larus minutus Pall.) from Ukraine is described. The species is characterized by 10 aploparaksoid hooks, each 13–15 μm long. It noticeably differs from all of the species of this genus by the shape and the armament of the cirrus and the presence of polar delicate filaments on the embryophore of eggs.
A survey for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the Steienernematidae and Heterorhabditidae in soils of different crop types of agricultural lands (household plots, commercial fields) in the forest (Polissya) and forest-steppe (Lisostep) zones of Ukraine was carried out in spring, summer and autumn months from 2016 to 2018. In total, 205 soil samples and 92 live-traps were processed. In addition, 98 samples of soil-living larvae and adults of insect crop pests, including cockchafer beetles, click beetle larvae, darkling beetle larvae, caterpillars of the scoops were collected. It is shown that the EPNs distribution and frequency of occurrence depends on the natural geographical features (regional characteristics) and habitat types. EPNs were found in 46 (15.4 %) out 297 samples. The incidence (% of samples) of the entomopathogenic nematodes, and their diversity varied depending on the location-based sampling, the type of agrocenosis, and the predominant agricultural plant species or typical species-edificators. The proportion of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., Heterorhabditis spp.) recovery from regions of Lisostep zone was 16.9 %, and 13.6 % from regions of Polissya zone. The highest number among all positive samples was recorded from the apple trees, Malus domestica Borkh., 1803 (10 samples). The least number of positive samples (one sample) was obtained from sweet cherry trees, Prúnus cérasus L., 1753, junipers, Juniperus communis L., 1753, alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., 1753, common beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., 1753, and common pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L., 1753. The steinernematid nematodes were noticeably dominant over heterorhabditid nematodes: 60.8 % vs 39.2 % respectively. Steinernema spp. is widespread in different regions and plots, whereas Heterorhabditis spp. are common in fruit orchards and coniferous decorative perennial plantings.
A monotypic genus Proparadilepis Kornyushin et Greben, gen. n. (type species: Proparadilepis plegadissaakovae sp. n.) is erected. It is similar to the genera Paradilepis Hsu, 1935, Ascodilepis Guildal, 1960 and Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912 and differs from them by the number and shape of rostellar hooks, armament of the cirrus and shape of gravid uterus. Its type species, P. plegadissaakovae sp. n. is described from Plegadis falcinellus L. It was found by Е. О. Saakova and assigned as Paradilepis plegadis nomen nudum because its description was not published according to the criteria of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The additions to the keys of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Bona, 1994) are proposed. The genus Dendrouterina is divided, according to the existing groups “herodiae” and “macrosphincter” distinguished by Bona (1975) into two valid genera, Dendrouterina and Mashonalepis Beverley-Burton, 1960.
The article summarizes information on the nematodes parasitic in wild Carnivora of Ukraine. Totally, 50 species of nematodes are known to parasitise carnivorans in the country, 30 species were registered in the present study. Nematodes were found in 14 species of examined hosts from the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Felidae. Maximum diversity of nematodes of carnivorans was observed in Polissia (forest zone in the north of the country) and in Kherson Region in the south. Hosts from the family Canidae harboured 19 nematode species; studied species of the Mustelidae were infected with 15 nematode species, 6 of them were also found in Canidae. The wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber) and the lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus) harboured only two species of nematodes, both are specific parasites of these hosts. The most comprehensive information concerns the nematode communities of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) and the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus), with 19 and 9 nematode species found, correspondingly. From 1 to 6 nematode species were found in other species of carnivorans.
Within September–April 2016–2017 potato tubers affected by the potato rot nematode Ditylenchus destructor were selected in the potato storage facilities of the Institute of Potato Production of NAAS. 18 species of phytonematodes were identified, including an edificator species of microparasitocenosis and 17 satellite species of this pathogenic phytohelminth, mycohelminths (6 species) and saprobiotic nematodes (11 species). These phytonematodes are representatives of two orders, Rhabditida (11 species from 4 families) and Tylenchida (7 species from 4 families). Nematodes that are part of the group formed by D. destructor and its satellite species are divided into five groups according to quantitative indicators (the prevalence of invasion P and intensity of invasion I). The dominant is one species — D. destructor. Satellite species of D. destructor are divided into four groups, these are subdominants (4 species) and common species (3 species), which together with the dominant species form the core of the group, as well as rare (6) and accidental (4). It was shown that in the course of the disease a regular succession occurs, the species composition of phytonematodes, the grouping structure, the relationship between the number of species of various trophic groups, and the number of certain species change. There are five stages in the course of the disease, from D. destructor colonisation of the tuber, the penetration of the mycohelminths and saprobionts into the focus of the disease, and the disappearance of D. destructor. The maximum number of D. destructor occurs at stage III, mycohelminths — at stage IV, and saprobiotic nematodes — at stage V. Infracommunities consist of from two to seven species. The distribution of all the studied tubers by the number of species in the infracommunity is close to normal, most often 3–4 species of nematodes were found, several species of nematodes of the same genus are extremely rare in a particular infracommunity.