New and Rare Species of Orthocladiinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Crimea, Ukraine
Parorthocladius korneyevi Baranov, sp. n. and Prosmittia valentinae Baranov, sp. n. from the Crimean Peninsula are described and illustrated. Three species of Orthocladiinae: Bryophaenocladius akiensis (Sasa, Shimomura et Matsuo, 1991), Corynoneura lacustris Edwards, 1924 and Metriocnemus eurynotus (Holmgren, 1883) are recorded for the first time from the Ukraine.
Three species of Tanypodinae: Conchapelopia melanops (Meigen, 1818), Paramerina cf. cingulata (Walker, 1856), Procladius (Psilotanypus) flavifrons Edwards, 1929 are recorded for the first time for Ukraine. Notes on morphology of P. cf. cingulata are given.
The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Pregnancy Miscarriage and Placental Insufficiency
Research of past decades has shown that pregnancy miscarriage (PM) and placental insufficiency (PI) underlie severe obstetric pathologies that result in complications of fetal development. The occurrence of PI developed during previous PMs varied from 47.6 to 77.3%. Pregnancy miscarriage can be considered to be the clinical manifestation of PI, which is a common complication in women with a previous history of PM. Endothelial dysfunction in the mother and in the fetoplacental complex are basic causes of PI. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a key role in maintenance of proper balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of blood vessels, and thus, in blood pressure regulation. DNA samples were genotyped for insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This study shows that the frequency of allele I of the ACE gene in DNA samples from placentae of the women with PM and PI (group 4) is twice as high than in the placentae of women with a PM history but without PI in the current pregnancy (group 3) (64.6 and 30.4%, respectively, p <0.001). Odds ratio (OR) analyses showed that the D/D genotype in placentae increases by 3-fold the risk of PI in women negative for PM history. The presence of the I/I genotype in patients positive for PM history increases the risk of PI 2.6-fold. It is concluded that the D/D genotype in placentae correlates with increased risk of PI in women negative for PM history, whereas the I/I genotype is a risk factor for PI in patients positive for PM history.