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Danica Krupová, Věra Fadrhonsová, Hana Pavlendová, Pavel Pavlenda, Slávka Tóthová and Vít Šrámek

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric depositions on the permanent monitoring plots of Level II of the ICP Forest programme in Czech and Slovak forest areas was described in this paper. The atmospheric bulk deposition of sulphur, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen from the years 2000–2016 were assessed and compared with the data obtained on European plots of this programme. The temporal developments of annual depositions in kg.ha−1.year−1 were determined by linear regression and displayed through maps. The most significant change during the reporting period was in the annual sulphur deposition, which was the statistically significant with rather sharp decrease on Slovak plots (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.68) and with milder decrease in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.23). There are small spatial and temporal differences in the deposition of the annual nitrate nitrogen depositions. The decrease was statistically more significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.53) than in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.30). The smallest changes were in annual depositions of ammonium nitrate, although the deposition was statistically significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.42). In the Czech Republic dropped only slightly over the whole territory (except in the Beskydy Mts.) during evaluated period. The temporal variations of polluting components revealed significant differences between developments of depositions on the different plots of both republics. The sulphur and nitrogen depositions in the Slovak and Czech Republic persistently ranking among the highest in Europe, what is caused by local and transboundary anthropogenic emission.

Open access

Zuzana Sitková, Roman Sitko, Monika Vejpustková, Jozef Pajtík and Vít Šrámek

Abstract

We examined the effect of weather variables on radial growth of Norway spruce and European beech at the intra- and interannual level. We used database of regular growth measurements at 9 forest sites distributed along an altitudinal and spatial gradient within the Slovakia and Czech Republic. In the period of 2010–2017, we analysed data from 213 dendrometers with manual reading in monthly or biweekly interval. The mean daily and annual diameter increments were analysed in relation to air temperatures and precipitation observed during the respective growing seasons. The general intra-annual diameter increment was modelled using a log-normal function. Results of modelling suggest that precipitation was a better predicting factor of the increment in spruce, while air temperature enhanced predictions of increments in beech. The highest, eight-year-cumulative increment of spruce (31.1 mm) and beech (22.8 mm) was found in the mixed mountainous forest at Poľana site, where both species occur in their growth optimum. The interspecific comparison of radial growth at this site revealed earlier culmination of increment in spruce compared to beech. The growth-limiting weather conditions for spruce occurred especially during the dry season 2015, while in beech sites the slight decrease of annual increment was observed in 2016. In the lowest altitudes of studied forest sites (beech 350 m a.s.l., spruce 440 m a.s.l.) the radial growth was reduced due to high summer temperatures. In the context of further predicted increase of air temperatures, these altitudinal limits for tree growth should be considered in the future forest management in Central Europe.

Open access

Petr Zahradník, Josef Frýdl, Vít Šrámek, Bohumír Lomský, František Havránek, Marian Slodičák, Antonín Jurásek, František Šach, Vladimír Černohous, Jindřich Neruda, Jiří Matějíček and Ivo Kupka

Abstract

The Forestry and Game Management Research Institute (Czechia) was founded on 31st October 1921 with the establishment of the Forest Protection Department. In the era before and after the World War II, several more institutes were founded, and they underwent a number of reorganizations during the 1950s and finally took the form more or less corresponding with the current one. The institute went through further major changes in the early 1990s. In the 1950s, the forestry research saw dynamic development, partially also caused by a significant increase in the number of experts and finalization of the original concept of the institutional structure which covered almost all fields of forestry. Research focused on topical issues of the forest management, covering forest protection, silviculture, forest ecology, biology ad breeding of forest trees, seed growing, forest economy, forestry mechanization, forest management planning and game management. Results were provided to the forestry practice, and there also were numerous monographs and both scientific and expert articles which helped disseminate new findings. Many of these findings have been applied up to now and others built the basis for further research that has been followed on by the current generation of researchers.