Absolute dating of mass movements is crucial for disentangling possible release factors and determining the frequency of events. Here, we present an overview of a recent approach to dendrochronological dating of rockfalls, flows, landslides and avalanches. The results, based on 69 casestudies, show that methodological approaches to sampling and material processing differ considerably for different types of mass movements. Landslides are usually detected through abrupt growth changes and changes in stem eccentricity, whereas high-energy events as avalanches and flows are mostly identified by the formation of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, growth injuries and eccentricity changes. Cross-dating of dead wood is applicable as well. The dating of most mass movements except landslides is common, even with sub-annual resolution. In comparison to other methods of absolute dating, the main benefit of dendrochronology still lies in the high temporal resolution of the results. If living material is accessible, on-going research progress makes absolute dating of most mass-wasting events possible with sub-annual precision.
Assessing the Change in Cover of Non-Indigenous Dwarf-Pine Using Aerial Photographs, a Case Study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts., the Sudetes
In addition to ongoing climate change, alpine ecosystems are also threatened by the expansion of non-indigenous species. Expansion of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. is an excellent example of the interactions between a planted alpine shrub and alpine ecosystems dominated by grassland species. Based on a comparison of aerial photographs taken in two different periods (1971/73 and 2003) we analyzed spatial changes in the dwarf pine cover. We focused on an evaluation of the current proportion of dwarf pine stands above the upper forest limit, as well as on the effects of stand texture and environmental variables on dwarf pine expansion over this 30 year period. During this time, dwarf pine stands increased their extent by 63%. Small forest-free areas above the upper forest limit in the northern part of the Hrubý Jeseník ridge are currently covered by dwarf pine on more than 30% of their surface. Expansion of dwarf pine was fastest in open, fine-grained stands, often situated in lower altitudes and on north- to east-facing slopes. The dwarf pine expansion was more intense than predicted by simple model of vegetative growth, especially within open stands with short polycormon margins in low altitudes. This might be explained by more intensive growth in less extreme environment and/or by higher generative reproduction on these sites. Finally, we suggest that expanding dwarf pine shrubs and recessing grassland patches negatively affects the abundance of heliophilous alpine plants and insects. We believe that the results of this study could be relevant to ongoing discussions on the management of summit forest-free areas in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts.