Introduction: The prevalence of arrhythmias in dogs and the influence of sex, breed, age, and body weight were analysed over a seven-year span.
Material and Methods: In total, 1189 referrals for cardiological examination by electrocardiography were received at one academic centre in Poland between 2008 and 2014. The largest proportion of the examined dogs were cross-breeds with body weight below 25 kg (n = 153, 12.87%), followed by German Shepherds (n = 122, 10.26%), Labrador Retrievers (n = 68, 5.72%), Yorkshire Terriers (n = 63, 5.3%), and Boxers (n = 60, 5.05%). Retrospective analysis was made of 1201 standing or right recumbent electrocardiograms without pharmacological sedation. The prevalence of arrhythmias was examined in terms of sex, age, body weight, and breed of the dogs.
Results: A total of 630 (52.46%) electrocardiograms showed no signs of arrhythmia, but 96 (7.99%) and 475 (39.55%) pointed to physiological and pathological arrhythmias respectively. The most commonly diagnosed type was atrial fibrillation with 33.68% incidence, followed by ventricular arrhythmias (28%), sinus pauses (27.58%), supraventricular arrhythmias (24%), and atrioventricular blocks (22.95%). Pathological arrhythmias were most commonly found in male dogs and in German Shepherds.
Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation predominated, followed by premature ventricular complexes. Male dogs were generally more prone to heart rhythm disturbances.
The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of tricuspid dysplasia (TD) in dogs with respect to breed, age, sex, clinical signs, and echocardiographic findings and to compare this data with literature. TD was found in 15 dogs (6.5% of congenital cardiac disease) of 215 dogs with congenital heart defects. All dogs had right heart enlargement on thoracic radiographs, echocardiography, and electrocardiography. Doppler echocardiography revealed tricuspid valve regurgitation. Seven dogs presented no clinical symptoms to date. TD took the form of Ebstein anomaly in all Labrador Retrievers, one Boxer, and one German Shepherd dog. TD predominated in males (11 males vs. three females). The body weight of the affected dogs, with the exception of the Miniature Schnauzer, exceeded 20 kg. Two dogs (Boxer and Bull Terrier) had additional congenital cardiac lesions in the form of mitral valve dysplasia. The most affected breeds in the study were the Labrador Retriever and Boxer.
The aim of this study was to evaluate systolic function of left ventricle in dogs with spontaneous mitral regurgitation by estimating the rate of pressure rise in the left ventricle (dP/dt). Ninety-three dogs of different breed and sex, with chronic degenerative valvular disease were examined. All dogs had echocardiography examination with dP/dt estimation assessed from mitral regurgitant jet using continuous Doppler-echocardiography. The dogs were divided into four classes of heart failure according to NYHA class. Results: dogs in NYHA I dP/dt = 2,142 ±1,309, SF=33.6±10.5, EF=66.58± 14; NYHA II dP/dt = 3,062 ±1,798, SF=42 ±10, EF=76.5 ±11.5; NYHA III dP/dt = 3,483 ±2,136, SF=44.2 ±21, EF=75.7 ±13; NYHA IV dP/dt = 4,496 ±1,797, SF=40.6 ±6, EF=70.4 ±16. Dogs with chronic cardiac insufficiency and mitral insufficiency due to chronic degenerative valvular disease had no echocardiograhic evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction assessed from mitral regurgitant jet dP/dt.
Electrocardiographic examinations were performed on 45 Silesian breed horses (group K, 3-16-year-old, 16 stallions, 29 mares) and on 25 Polish Primitive breed horses (group P, 1.5-19-year-old, two stallions, six geldings, 17 mares). Einthoven and chest leads were used. P-wave dispersion was electronically evaluated. There was no correlation between P-wave dispersion and other ECG parameters, age, sex, body mass, or month of pregnancy. The average value of P-wave dispersion for all horses was 30.77 ms (SD 3.92 ms), however in particular groups it was: in group P - 31.89 ms (SD 3.07 ms), and in group K - 30.15 ms (SD 4.27 ms). The maximum value of P-wave dispersion in the studied population was 40 ms, in groups P and K - 37,6 ms and 40 ms, respectively. The physiological value of P-wave dispersion for the group of horses was below 45 ms.
Results of supravital and post-mortem observation of embolic-thrombotic complications in dogs, in the course of endotoxaemia induced by pyometra and phlegmonous pneumonia due to infection with Pseudomons aeruginosa, or endomyocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection were described. Multiorgan embolic-thrombotic complications were diagnosed in all presented cases. Most probably, the complications developed due to thrombocytopoenia secondary to platelet activation and exacerbation of endotoxin-induced DIC syndrome. In all the dogs, a disturbed cardiac rhythm was diagnosed supravitally. The rhythm disturbances might reflect myocardial injury due to presence of bacterial endotoxins in blood. The myocardial injury was confirmed by histopathological examination.
Ventricular rhythm disturbances are a common pathology in human and veterinary medicine. In humans, the algorithmic approach is used to differentiate wide QRS complex tachycardia. The most commonly used are the aVR and Brugada algorithms as well as the ventricular tachycardia (VT) score developed by Jastrzębski and coworkers. In veterinary medicine, no such algorithms are available and the only parameter used to describe VT abnormalities is the duration of the QRS complexes. The aim of this analysis was determining whether human medicine algorithms for VT are applicable in veterinary medicine to differentiate wide QRS complex tachycardia in dogs.
Material and Methods
A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 dogs of both sexes and various breeds and age diagnosed with VT. The diagnosis was based on ambulatory ECG, further established based on the reaction to lidocaine or adenosine or an invasive electrophysiological study.
Of the 11 tracings passed through the aVR algorithm, 10 met the VT criteria. The most common criterion was the Vi/Vt ratio (8 out of 11 tracings). Based on the VT score, seven out of eight dogs had a high probability of VT.
Retrospective analysis of ECGs by aVR and VT score indicates that the applied algorithms may be useful in differentiating wide QRS complex tachycardia as a quick, easy, and non-invasive alternative to cardiac electrophysiology.
In veterinary medicine, sensitive and specific markers of the early stages of renal failure still remain to be established. Podocytes could be a promising diagnostic tool in veterinary nephrology, especially in the differentiation of active pathological disease and glomerulopathies. Podocin is one of the robust proteins exploitable in detection of podocyturia. This article presents podocyte detection in urine for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine using a variety of methods. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of the immunohistochemical technique currently used, and of scanning microscopy, chromatography, and immunostaining. The identification of podocin-positive cells is a promising diagnostic tool in the detection of the early stages of glomerular basement membrane damage. The detection of renal failure prior to the occurrence of azotaemia is of high clinical importance from the clinical and scientific points of view.
Electrical cardioversion is a therapeutic procedure used to convert various types of arrhythmias back to sinus rhythm. It is used to restore the sinus rhythm in dogs with atrial fibrillation. The effect of the electrical energy used during cardioversion on red blood cells (RBC) is not fully understood. Studies on humans reported lysis of RBC following electrical cardioversion. Similar studies have not been carried out on dogs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of electrical cardioversion on chosen RBC parameters.
Material and Methods
The study was carried out on 14 large and giant breed dogs weighing from 30 to 84 kg with lone atrial fibrillation (lone AF). Electrical cardioversion was carried out under general anaesthesia by biphasic shock with 70–360 J of energy. Blood was collected at T0 – during atrial fibrillation, prior to cardioversion, and at T1 – 30 min after electrical cardioversion. Complete blood counts as well as total and direct bilirubin concentrations were evaluated. A maximum output of 360 J was used.
In all cases, electrical cardioversion was effective, and no significant changes in the number of RBC and RBC indices were noted. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of total and direct bilirubin.
Electrical cardioversion in dogs led neither to statistically nor clinically significant RBC lysis.
The study was an attempt to determine the possibilities of using ovocystatin, a component of a new generation product of natural origin, in local therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs by suppressing pruritus during illness. Chicken egg cystatin was used locally in the interdigital spaces of forelimbs of dogs used in the experiment. The degree of pruritus and clinical changes in the animals were defined using CADESI-03 scale before and after the beginning of the experiment. The results obtained proved that ovocystatin may be used as a substance suppressing pruritus in atopic dermatitis.
Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.
Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.
Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.
Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.