The aim of the work is to describe a capability of the active carbon CARBON L-2-4 (AC) and of the nanocarbon (NC) materials containing iron nanoparticles to continuously remove SO2 from air. The carbon nanomaterials (NC) containing iron nanoparticles were synthesised using a chemical vapor deposition method - through catalytic decomposition of ethylene on nanocrystalline iron.
The process of SO2 removal was carried out on dry and wet with water carbon catalyst (AC or NC) and was studied for inlet SO2 concentration 0.3 vol.% in the presence of O2, N2 and H2O, in the temperature range of 40-80°C.
Decomposition of hydrocarbons was carried out on nickel and iron catalysts containing small amounts of calcium and aluminum oxides as structural promoters. Decomposition of methane, ethane and ethylene was studied under atmospheric pressure in the temperature range from 500 to 700 °C. The phase composition of the obtained samples was investigated using X-ray diffraction method. The role of nickel and iron carbides in the formation of carbon deposit was discussed.
Magnetic ZnFe2O4 nanocomposite (ZnFe-NC) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, BET and FTIR. The effects of various parameters such as initial RB concentration (5–25 mg L−1), pH (3.4–11.1) and temperature (20–60°C) were investigated. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium increased from 5.02 to 9.83 mg g−1, with the increase in the initial concentration of RB from 5 to 25 mg L−1 at pH 7.0 and at 20°C. The experimental results indicated that the maximum RB removal could be attained at a solution pH of 4.4 and the adsorption capacity obtained was 6.02 mg g−1. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed using the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, the pseudo-second-order model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The adsorption kinetics well fitted using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using two isotherm models, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich. The results revealed that the adsorption behavior of the RB onto ZnFe-NC fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) have been calculated.
Calcination and microwave-assisted hydrothermal processing of precipitated zirconium dioxide are compared. Characterization of synthesized products of these two technologies is presented. The infiuence of thermal treatment up to 1200oC on the structural and spectroscopic properties of the so-obtained zirconium dioxide is examined. It was found that initial crystallization of material inhibits the crystal growth up to the 800oC (by means of XRD and TEM techniques), while the material crystallized from amorphous hydroxide precursor at 400oC, exhibits 26 nm sized crystallites already. It was found using the TG technique that the temperature range 100–200oC during the calcination process is equivalent to a microwave hydrothermal process by means of water content. Mass loss is estimated to be about 18%. Based on X-ray investigations it was found that the initial hydroxide precursor is amorphous, however, its luminescence activity suggests the close range ordering in a material.
Transition metal catalysts (mainly: iron, cobalt and nickel) on various supports are successfully used in a largescale production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), but after the synthesis it is necessary to perform very aggressive purification treatments that cause damages of CNTs and are not always effective. In this work a preparation of unsupported catalysts and their application to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesis is presented. Iron, cobalt and bimetallic iron-cobalt catalysts were obtained by co-precipitation of iron and cobalt ions followed by solid state reactions. Although metal particles were not supported on the hard-to-reduce oxides, these catalysts showed nanometric dimensions. The catalysts were used for the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition method. The syntheses were conducted under ethylene - argon atmosphere at 700°C. The obtained catalysts and carbon materials after the synthesis were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The effect of the kind of catalyst on the properties of the obtained carbon material has been described.
Magnetic properties of 0.7(Fe2O3)/0.3(ZnO) nanocomposite synthesized by traditional wet chemistry method and containing only two phases: ZnO (nonmagnetic) and ZnFe2O4 (magnetic, with nanocrystallites of average size 12 nm, but forming large agglomerates, up to 100 nm in size) were studied by DC magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The investigated nanocomposite was either in a form of nanopowder or dispersed at concentration of 0.1 wt.% in poly(ethylene naphthalate-block-tetramethylene oxide) PTMO-b-PEN polymer matrix. Similarities and differences in magnetic behavior of these two samples revealed by the study of static magnetization and FMR spectra have been discussed relative to different morphologies and the associated variation of interparticle interactions. Moreover, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of the nanocomposite and the neat polymer have been studied by thermogravimetric method.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained in the polyethylene glycol environment. An effect of precipitation and drying temperatures on the size of the prepared nanoparticles was observed. Superparamagnetic iron oxide Fe3O4, around of 15 nm, was obtained at a precipitation temperature of 80°C and a drying temperature of 60°C. The presence of functional groups characteristic for a polyethylene glycol surfactant on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR and XPS measurements. Silver nanoparticles were introduced by the impregnation. Fe3O4-Ag nanostructure with bactericidal properties against Escherichia coli species was produced. Interesting magnetic properties of these materials may be helpful to separate the bactericidal agent from the solution.
Utilization of spent iron catalyst for ammonia synthesis
Several methods of the utilization of spent iron catalyst for ammonia synthesis have been presented. The formation of iron nitrides of different stoichiometry by direct nitriding in ammonia in the range of temperatures between 350°C and 450°C has been shown. The preparation methods of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers where iron catalyst catalyse the decomposition of hydrocarbons have been described. The formation of magnetite embedded in a carbon material by direct oxidation of carburized iron catalyst has been also presented.