The progressive growth and spread of tumour cells in the form of metastases requires an interaction of healthy host cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other cells of mesenchymal origin with immune cells taking part in innate and adaptive responses within the tumour lesion and entire body. The host cells interact with tumour cells to create a dynamic tumour microenvironment, in which healthy cells can both positively and negatively influence the growth and spread of the tumour. The balance of cellular homeostasis and the effect of substances they secrete on the tumour microenvironment determine whether the tumour has a tendency to grow or disappear, and whether the cells remain within the lesion or are capable of metastasis to other regions of the body. Intercellular interactions also determine the tumour’s susceptibility to radiation or other types of cancer treatment. They may also be a rational explanation for differences in treatment outcomes, in which some metastases regress and others progress in response to the same treatment method.
Phagocytic activity and oxygen metabolism of peripheral blood granulocytes from rabbits with experimental trichophytosis were assessed by flow cytometry.
Material and Methods
Virulent species of T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum (Tm-K) isolated from rabbits with natural trichophytosis was used for experimental infection. The phagocytic activity of granulocytes was measured in whole blood by flow cytometry using the commercial Phagotest kit. Oxidative burst was measured in whole blood by flow cytometry using the commercial Bursttest kit.
It was found that rabbits were susceptible to infection with Trichophyton mentagrophytes under experimental conditions. The analysis of the phagocytic activity indices and oxygen metabolism of granulocytes in peripheral blood of infected rabbits showed that changes of the indices were connected with the progression and regression of the disease. A significant decrease in phagocytic activity and oxygen metabolism was observed during development of fungal lesions and it remained similar throughout the progress of the disease. The highest means of the percentage of activated and ingesting phagocytes and a significant increase in the mean fluorescence intensity (representing the number of ingested bacteria) were observed during spontaneous recovery. Therefore, the decrease or increase in the indices of phagocytic activity and oxygen metabolism of granulocytes from rabbits experimentally infected with T. mentagrophytes is somehow related to the progress of infection and suppressive activity of the fungus, whose elimination during recovery caused significant increases in investigated indices of non-specific cellular immunity.
The results of the present investigation confirm that the mechanism of oxygen-dependent killing is crucial in infections caused by T. mentagrophytes.
The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.
The Forkhead genes (transcription complex Fox) play many important roles in the maintenance and determination of biological processes underlying carbon-based life. The expression of Fox genes occurring as a result of reciprocal interactions at the transcriptional level influences the correct function of the immune system as regards the context of general activity of immunological parameters, as well as exposure to aetiological agents. In the case of model organisms and species, in which the knowledge about genomic sequences is incomplete, understanding the above-mentioned transcriptional complex is still insufficient, despite the existence of numerous scientific publications. It is worth noting that Fox genes exist in amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum and in the majority of species they were not characterised. Among many coding sequences included in the transcriptional complex Forkhead, Foxp3, Foxn1, and Foxj1 genes are of a great importance from immunological point of view, being partially jointly responsible for determining features related to productivity. The paper provides general characterisation of selected Fox genes and is an introduction to the presentation of new data, which can be applied at the level of biological differentiation of the populations of domestic and wild animals.
Expression of CD4, CD8, and CD25 surface markers on T lymphocytes and levels of IFNγ, IL-10, and TNF-α in colostrum and milk were determined in sows vaccinated against Trueperella pyogenes in the final stage of pregnancy. The autovaccine, prepared from Trueperella pyogenes, administered twice to pregnant sows six and three weeks before the anticipated delivery significantly increased the percentages of TCD4+, TCD8+, and TCD25+ as well as levels of IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-10 in colostrum and milk. The enhanced immune potential of colostrum effectively protected the piglets against T. pyogenes infections during weaning and thus reduced the economic losses on the particular farm concerned, where T. pyogenes infections occur endemically. Knowledge of the profile of cellular and humoral immune response in colostrum and milk of vaccinated sows will enable the design of a T. pyogenes infection prophylactic programme for suckling pigs and weaners, which are most susceptible to infections.
Changes in selected blood lymphocyte subpopulations in dogs administered with a soluble parasitic antigen (SPA) derived from a supernatant of 18S RNA-A and 18S RNA-B Babesia canis cell culture were investigated. The studies included 20 dogs divided into three groups: group I (n=8) - comprised of dogs receiving SPA twice, at 3 week intervals; group II (n=5) - nonvaccinated control dogs, and group III (n=7) - dogs vaccinated twice with a commercial B. canis vaccine. Cytometric analysis revealed that vaccination with SPA derived from B. canis culture had similar effects to the vaccination with a commercial vaccine. The vaccination lowered the percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+), cytotoxic/supressor T cells (CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD21+), and MHC II lymphocytes in the blood in comparison to non-vaccinated dogs. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that mean values of the tested parameters at each stage of the study were similar in groups I and III and significantly higher in group II. The lowered level of the lymphocyte subpopulations in groups I and III persisted during the whole period of the study. The results presented that SPA has immunosuppressive effect in the first period after being administrated.