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  • Author: Urszula Błaszczyk x
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Agnieszka Wolińska, Dorota Górniak, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Agata Goryluk-Salmonowicz, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Zofia Stępniewska and Mieczysław Błaszczyk

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the differences in microbial community structure as a result of agricultural practices. Sixteen samples of cultivated and the same number of non-cultivated soils were selected. Gel bands were identified using the GelCompar software to create the presence-absence matrix, where each band represented a bacterial operational taxonomic unit. The data were used for principal-component analysis and additionally, the Shannon- Weaver index of general diversity, Simpson index of dominance and Simpson index of diversity were calculated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles clearly indicated differentiation of tested samples into two clusters: cultivated and non-cultivated soils. Greater numbers of dominant operational taxonomic units (65) in non-cultivated soils were noted compared to cultivated soils (47 operational taxonomic units). This implies that there was a reduction of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units by nearly 30% in cultivated soils. Simpson dominance index expressing the number of species weighted by their abundance amounted to 1.22 in cultivated soils, whereas a 3-fold higher value (3.38) was observed in non-cultivated soils. Land-use practices seemed to be a important factors affected on biodiversity, because more than soil type determined the clustering into groups.

Open access

Marta Skowron, Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka, Urszula Błaszczyk, Ewa Chwalińska, Aleksander Owczarek and Ewa Birkner

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type and form of oil (raw/non-oxidised (N) or post-frying/oxidised (O)) consumed in high-fat diets affect the oxidative status of an organism, as observed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative factor and antioxidant enzyme activity.

Material and Methods: Fats in the diet came from rapeseed oil (R) and olive oil (O).

Results: The applied diet caused a decrease in MDA concentration (μmol/L) in serum in group RN from 2.94 ± 0.87 to 1.76 ± 0.13, in group ON from 2.45 ± 0.62 to 1.50 ± 0.10, and in group OO from 2.70 ± 1.16 to 1.84 ± 0.36. Meanwhile, MDA concentration (mmol/L) increased in blood haemolysate in group RO from 0.15 ± 0.07 to 0.22 ± 0.03 and in group OO from 0.17 ± 0.02 to 0.22 ± 0.02. The observed changes caused a response of the enzymatic antioxidant system in both models, especially followed by an increase in activities of total superoxide dismutase and its mitochondrial isoenzyme in all experimental groups, while its cytosolic isoenzyme activity increased only in ON and OO groups. Increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in groups RN and RO and of catalase (CAT) in groups ON and OO was observed. Significant differences in responses to the different types and forms of oils were probably caused by the different oxidative stability of the studied oils.

Conclusion: This diet disturbed the body’s oxidative status; however, during the six-month study the enzymatic antioxidant system remained effective.