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Open access

Georgiana Grigoraș and Bogdan Urițescu

Abstract

The aim of the study is to find the relationship between the land surface temperature and air temperature and to determine the hot spots in the urban area of Bucharest, the capital of Romania. The analysis was based on images from both moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), located on both Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as on data recorded by the four automatic weather stations existing in the endowment of The National Air Quality Monitoring Network, from the summer of 2017. Correlation coefficients between land surface temperature and air temperature were higher at night (0.8-0.87) and slightly lower during the day (0.71-0.77). After the validation of satellite data with in-situ temperature measurements, the hot spots in the metropolitan area of Bucharest were identified using Getis-Ord spatial statistics analysis. It has been achieved that the “very hot” areas are grouped in the center of the city and along the main traffic streets and dense residential areas. During the day the "very hot spots” represent 33.2% of the city's surface, and during the night 31.6%. The area where the mentioned spots persist, falls into the "very hot spot" category both day and night, it represents 27.1% of the city’s surface and it is mainly represented by the city center.

Open access

Ionac Nicoleta, Tudor Ion, Grigore Elena, Constantin Dana, Uriţescu Bogdan and Cică Roxana

Abstract

The increasing frequency and intensity of climate and weather extremes due to ongoing climate changes can cause major property and infrastructure damage. Mainly representing unforeseen and unavoidable hazards, some environmental and business laws broadly assimilate them as force majeure situations, excepting parties affected by their impact from prior commitments. The present study, debating on the way law courts should broadly address the force majeure clause when objective and accurate evidence is being provided, describes the terms of a legal dispute between the owners of two neighboring buildings which have seriously been damaged by a severe thunderstorm developing over the Bucharest-Otopeni town area, on the 22nd July 2014. Consistent meteorological evidence (weather reports and forecasts, aerological diagrams, radar and satellite images, air-pressure distribution maps, synoptic messages etc.) have been presented to the law court to document, in an unbiased manner, on the extraordinary, external, unforeseen and unavoidable weather event representing the cause of a civil legal dispute. The extent to which the law court may take all these into consideration under the provisions of the force majeure clause is still to be explored.