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Vegetation of the Žale Cemetery (Ljubljana)

The paper presents results of a vegetation survey of the cemetery of Ljubljana as a specific urban habitat with a high diversity of vegetation types. Seventeen different plant communities were found, mostly weed (hoe weed and garden communities), trampled and ruderal communities. This indicates frequently disturbed habitat with different microclimatic conditions than those in the surroundings.

Conspectus of Vegetation Syntaxa in Slovenia

For the first time, an overview of plant communities in Slovenia is presented according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. In total 588 associations (and some communities classified into higher syntaxa) belonging to 51 classes have been registered in Slovenia. Additionally 149 syntaxa are mentioned as registered in the field or in, the literature, but not documented with relevé material. Syntaxonomical classification is based on the "EuroChecklist" and includes also the Slovenian written definition of the high-rank syntaxa.

Litter-Raking Forests in Se Slovenia and In Croatia

The standard Braun-Blanquet method was used for sampling litter-raking vegetation in southeastern Slovenia (Suha krajina, Bela krajina, Kočevsko) and in the border region in Croatia. Relevés were classified with the TWINSPAN program and two associations were separated: Pteridio-Betuletum Trinajstić et Šugar ex Rauš et Matić 1994 and Molinio-Quercetum Šugar 1972. Both communities are the result of intensive litter collecting (and other human impacts). The first one thrives on carbonate bedrock, while the second is limited on silicate bedrock, as is reflected in its specific floristic composition. Due to abandonment of litter collecting these stands are in progressive successional development, and typical variants are becoming rare and endangered.


A list of corrected and typified grassland communities of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tx. 1937 occurring in Serbia was provided. The nomenclature rules of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature were strictly followed. Syntaxonomic affiliation of communities to higher syntaxa was assessed according to the existing syntaxonomical schemes for Serbia, i.e. according to the position determined by the original source. Higher syntaxa followed the synsystem of the so-called “EuroVegChecklist”. Since syntaxonomic disagreements concerning a certain plant association’s position within the whole classification system have not been discussed, such a list should serve as the starting point for a further revision of the status of grassland communities in Serbia. So far, a total of 87 plant communities of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea were described for Serbia.

The list provided here will enable more precise and more accurate mapping of vegetation in Serbia, as well as classification of these communities into the Habitat Directive which will enable the establishment of the Red list of Habitats for Serbia.

Notes on phytosociology of Juniperus Excelsa in Macedonia (Southern Balkan Peninsula)

Juniperus excelsa is an East Mediterranean species found also in marginal, sub-mediterranean regions of the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It prefers shallow soils in the warmest habitats of the zone of thermophilous deciduous forests. In the past the rank of alliance and the name of Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae have been suggested for the vegetation dominated by Juniperus excelsa in the Balkan Peninsula. In this paper we present the valid description of the alliance in accordance with the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. The validation of the Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae required description of a new association - the Querco trojanae-Juniperetum excelsae. The Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae is classified within the order of Quercetalia pubescentis Klika 1933 (the Quercetea pubescentis Doing-Kraft ex Scamoni et Passarge 1959).


Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach) in Ulcinj (Montenegro) but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes), [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes), and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.


Ecological gradients along river banks of the Mura River influence forest species composition. On the basis of 58 relevés of floodplain forests along theMura River, the classification of vegetation plots was performed with the Pc-Ord program. The diagnostic species combination for three clusters revealed after classification was calculated by fidelity measure (phi-coefficient) and presented in an analytic table. Average Ellenberg inidicator values, stream distances and relative elevations of the relevés were passively projected onto PCA to show ecological relationships among them. Correlations of plant functional type and stream distance gradients were calculated with regression analysis. For themain edifiers response curves to the stream distance gradients weremade. The classification of the Mura floodplain forests has revealed three ecologically interpretable vegetation types: Salicetum albae (most humid and nutrient-rich sites), Fraxino- -Ulmetum allietosum ursini (ecologically intermediate sites), F.-U. quercetosum robori (the driest and the least nutrient-rich sites). Zonation of vegetation is connected to distance from the closest stream which influences species distribution through ecological gradients of moisture and nutrient. The proportion of therophytes is significantly negatively correlated with the distance from the closest stream and the proportion of neophytes is significantly negatively correlated with distance from the main stream.


The work deals with habitats of Romulea bulbocodium and Romulea linaresii ssp. graeca in the southern Balkans. Both species appear in early spring ephemeral therophytic non-nitrophilous grasslands in regions under the influence of the Mediterranean climate. These communities are classified within the Romulion alliance, which encompasses such communities from the eastern Mediterranean area. It was established that the main climatic factor causing the diversity of these communities is seasonality in precipitation and temperature. Two associations are presented, as Lagopo-Poetum bulbosae and Romuleo graecae-Poetum bulbosae.


Based on hierarchical classification of more than 300 phytosociological relevés of basophilic black and (or) Scots pine communities in the Southern, Eastern and Southeastern Alps we described a new association Rhodothamno chamaecisti-Pinetum sylvestris, into which we classify stands that have until now been discussed in the framework of subassociations Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae pinetosum sylvestris, laricetosum deciduae and (partly) caricetosum humilis, and are floristically slightly similar also to certain forms of the association Erico-Pinetum sylvestris. The stands of the new association are for now classified into Natura 2000 habitat type Southeastern-European Pinus sylvestris forests (91R0), within it we propose a special habitat subtype Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forests, and into a new forest site type Southeastern-Alpine Scots pine forest. At the contact of the Julian and Dinaric Alps we described a new subassociation Genisto januensis-Pinetum sylvestris campanuletosum cespitosae, which comprises also a Natura 2000 species Primula carniolica.


This paper contains the original diagnoses of new syntaxa and typifications of existing names of syntaxa from paper “Classification of plant communities along post-fire succession in Pinus brutia stands in southern Antalya (Turkey)” that was published in Turkish Journal of Botany. As journal has only on-line version according to ICPN descriptions are not valid. We described syntaxa: Eryngio falcati-Securigerion securidacae all. nova, Ajugo chiae-Lactucetum serriolae ass. nova, Phlomido grandiflorae-Cistetum salvifolii ass. nova, and Arbuto andrachnes- Quercetum cocciferae ass. nova and selected nomenclatural type for Querco- Phillyreetum mediae Barbero & Quézel 1976.