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  • Author: Ufuk Kaya x
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular morphometric measurements of male and female rabbits using three-dimensional digital model and real bone measurements. Ten (5 female, 5 male) rabbits with no bone deformities were used in the study. Three-dimensional models were produced from two-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of the rabbit’s mandible. Biometric data were obtained by using the same measuring points over both three-dimensional models and real bone samples. There was only a significant main effect of gender for the greatest length of the mandible, length from aboral border of the alveolus of third molar teeth to infradentale, length of the diastema, height of the vertical ramus (measured in projection), distance from the incisor to the oral border of mental foramen, distance from aboral border of mental foramen to caudal border of mandible, distance between retroalveolar foramen and caudal border of mandible. For these measurements, calculated data for females are significantly higher than the males (p<0.05). It was found to be statistically significant between methods only for the length of the cheek tooth row and height of the vertical ramus values (p<0.05). In this study, it was understood that 3D morphometric measurements for bone tissue could be used with accuracy and reliability especially in anatomy and orthodontics areas as an alternative to traditional measurements made with a digital caliper.


The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.


Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

Material and Methods: Holstein cows calving in January were assigned into winter group (n = 42), while cows calving in August were assigned into summer group (n = 42). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein 21, 14, and 7 days before calving, at calving (0 day), and 7, 14, and 21 days after calving. Reproductive parameters obtained from farm records were evaluated.

Results: In both groups of cows, GSH-Px activity decreased from 21 days before calving to day 0, and it gradually continued to increase until 21 days after calving. GSH-Px activity was higher in winter group compared to summer group during the transition period (P < 0.05). MDA levels in both groups increased over time starting from 21 days before calving to 0 day, but it gradually decreased thereafter. MDA levels were higher in summer group compared to winter group during the transition periods (P < 0.05). Summer group of cows showed higher intervals of calving-to-oestrus, calving-to-conception, and higher insemination index (P < 0.01). Negative correlation was recorded between GSH-Px and MDA during all examination days (P < 0.01). MDA levels correlated with calving to conception interval on day 21 before calving and day 0 (P < 0.01) and insemination index on day 0 and 21 days after calving (P < 0.01). GSH-Px activity was negatively correlated with calving to conception interval on day 21 before calving, day 0, and 21 days (P < 0.01) after calving. Negative correlation on day 21 before calving and day 0 was also determined between GSH-Px and insemination index (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: This study showed that blood oxidant and antioxidant levels have affected the fertility parameters in cows under seasonal variations.



The objectives of this study were to determine the role of a fall in pre-calving body condition score (BCS) in postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes, and gauge the indicativeness of blood metabolites during the transition period.

Material and Methods

Cows were grouped based on BCS loss between days −14 ±3 and 0 relative to calving. Cows that lost no BCS were the BCS control group (BCS-C), cows that lost 0.25 BCS points the low BCS loss group (BCS-L), and those that lost 0.5 points or more the high BCS loss (BCS-H) group. Blood was taken on days −14 ±3, 3, 14, and 30 ±4 for determination of comprehensive metabolic panel biomarker levels. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) levels were quantified on postpartum examination days. Vaginal discharge scores, ovarian activity on day 30 ±4, and subsequent fertility parameters were evaluated.


The BCS-H cows had lower mean Ca concentrations before calving and on day 3, when the group’s BHBA and CK were higher (P < 0.05); on day 14 they had higher AST concentrations (P < 0.05). The BCS-L cows had greater bilirubin levels (P < 0.05). The BCS-H cows had lower cyclicity and higher endometritis rates. First service pregnancy rates were 50%, 50%, and 61.9%, open days 96.8, 95.75, and 89.2, and overall pregnancy rates 56.25%, 65%, and 80.95 % in the BCS-H, BCS-L, and BCS-C groups, respectively.


Prepartum BCS loss of ≥ 0.5 points could be associated with Brown Swiss cow low Ca and BHBA concentrations early postpartum, and with subsequent uterine health and overall pregnancy rate. Prepartum Ca concentration might be a prognostic biomarker for postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes.