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Open access

Ts. Uzunov, T. Uzunov, R. Grozdanova and D. Kosturkov

Summary

The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED), Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®). It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

Open access

V. Svechtarov, S. Nencheva-Svechtarova and Ts. Uzunov

Summary

The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD) adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.

Open access

D. Kosturkov and Ts. Uzunov

Abstract

The pulp hyperaemia is associated with increased blood flow in the pulp. Diagnosis of this condition is very important for the outcome of a dental treatment. There are new methods, which can detect the pulp blood flow. Such method, gaining increasing popularity nowadays, is pulse oximetry. In this study, intact teeth and teeth with diagnosis of hyperaemia pulpae are examined by pulse oximeter and electric pulp test. The results show that the threshold of irritation is decreased in teeth with hyperemia, and the saturation of the pulp is increased by 12.34% in frontal teeth and 7.27% in distal teeth. There is a statistically significant difference (p < 0,05) in the values measured with pulse oximeter in the intact frontal and distal teeth and the teeth with hyperemia. Pulse oximetry can detect changes in pulp microcirculation in state of hyperemia. It is an extremely valuable method for early, objective diagnosis of pulp blood flow, as well as for its monitoring in dynamics.

Open access

Savina Nencheva-Sveshtarova, V. Sveshtarov, Ts. Uzunov and K. Prodanova

Summary

The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the combined gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diods (SLD; 633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of 62 patients with 7 of the most common pain-related temporomandibular disorders with highest sensitivity and specificity according to diagnostic criteria DC/TMD. Using paired samples t-test a positive effect in the pain relief for all tested conditions was demonstrated. The most manifested and statistically significant reduction of pain was found in arthralgia attributed to osteoarthritis and systemic (rheumatoid) arthritis (p = 0.0000001), and disc displacement without reduction with limited opening (p = 0.0000002). Similar levels of pain reduction were found in arthralgia attributed to subluxation, myofascial pain with referral, local myalgia (p values vary between 0.000001 and 0.000284); the lowest values were recorded for myofascial pain (p = 0.001789) and hypermobility-related myalgia (p = 0.018443). The combined laser and SLD phototherapy can be defined as very effective treatment option particularly in pain reduction of internal derangement disorders as well as in some myogenic-related pain conditions affected by TMJ dysfunction.

Open access

Ts. Uzunov, R. Grozdanova, E. Popova and T. Uzunov

Summary

The laser coagulation at the apical part of the root canal after vital extirpation is a proper method of preventing complications such as pain, bleeding, remaining vital pulp. The aim of the present survey is to register the thermal changes that occur on the tooth surfaces during laser treatment of the root canal after vital extirpation. An in vitro study of 30 extracted teeth has been conducted. The teeth have been prepared with ProTaper nickel-titanium machine tools and wiped dry. During the course of laser treatment of root canals with a diode laser DenLase temperatures, changes of the surface of the hard dental tissues have been recorded with infrared camera FLIR T330. The captured thermal images have been processed with software product Flir Reporter Pro 9. In conclusion, temperature changes in hard dental tissues at diode laser treatment of the root canal are biocompatible.

Open access

Violeta Dogandzhiyska, I. Angelov, Sl. Dimitrov and Ts. Uzunov

Summary

Based on their biological, analgesic and antibacterial effect, lasers are becoming more widely used in clinical practice in the recent years. In order to obtain a therapeutic effect and to prevent dental pulp alteration in the treatment of hard tooth tissue, the parameters of laser radiation should be precisely controlled. Upon irradiation of dental pulp, these effects are dependent on the permeability of light through the enamel and dentin. The purpose of our study was to examine the penetration of light through dentin, according to the wavelength.The absorption of light was also studied. For the aim of our investigation 30 dentin samples with thickness 1 mm of extracted human teeth (premolars and molars) were prepared. The absorption and transmission of light in the range 350-1000 nm in its passage through the samples were studied using a spectrophotometer Ocean Optics QE65000. The obtained results showed that the light absorption of dentin in spectral range 350-600 nm depends on the wavelength. When light sources, emitting in the wavelength range above 600 nm were used, the dependence was low. These features should be taken into account in the choice of irradiation wavelength and a light source.