Using the Manyōshū corpus, the paper argues that conceptual metaphor theory imposes limitations on the diversity of linguistic facts, particularly those concerning the speaker or the poet who is communicating. The paper offers explanations of the nature of time by drawing upon the inference operating within “basic sign structure”, specifically, indexicality and iconicity, both of which are at the heart of human semiotic activity.
Japanese English (JE) refers to the English spoken by Japanese citizens. This paper characterizes JE by examining its lexicogrammatical features produced by five speakers participating in experimental recordings. Drawing on the initiatives taken by Cogo and Dewey’s seminal work (2012), this study presents nine lexicogrammatical features which are taken to be typical of JE. It is shown that one decisive factor in creating a new variant is the formation of an alternative form to its native counterpart and this mechanism is sourced from the speaker’s multiple knowledge about two languages.