Plamen Zorovski, Vladislav Popov and Tonya Georgieva
During the 2014-2016 period in Agroecological Center at the Agricultural University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria growth and development of three species of wheat in terms of organic farming had been tracked in order to return the species in the crop rotation, maintenance of biodiversity and receiving of cleaner and healthy products from organic farms. The three species of wheat Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccum Sch, and Triticum spelta L., differ between its rate of growth, development, general and productive tillering. In tillering phase the plants reached 12,3 cm of height for Triticum monococcum L., 15,7 cm for Triticum spelta L. and 19,4 cm for Triticum dicoccum Sch. Triticum monococcum L. and Triticum dicoccum Sch, reached ear formation phase 5 days earlier than Triticum spelta L. The interfacial period of stem elongation - ear formation in them, was about 21 days compared to 25 days for Triticum spelta L.. From ear formation to full maturity inter-phase periods were shorter in Triticum dicoccum Sch., which specifies the species as an early mature (6 days earlier) compared to the other two. After phenophase of stem elongation plants were growing the most intensive and in full ripeness reached a height of 94 cm in Triticum monococcum L., 81,5 cm in Triticum dicoccum Sch. and 82,5 cm in Triticum spelta L.
Regina Komsa-Penkova, Svetla J. Todinova, Tonya D. Andreeva, Sashka B. Krumova, Stefka G. Taneva, Georgi M. Golemanov, Galia A. Georgieva, Nikolina M. Mihaylova, Andrey I. Tchorbanov and Pencho T. Tonchev
Platelet activation is a complex process in which platelet reorganization takes place associated with changes in the cell shape, topology, membrane elasticity and microparticle production. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes/aberrations in the platelet activity, elasticity and morphology in healthy subjects, carriers of A allele of prothrombin G20210A polymorphism. Blood samples from 18 healthy subjects were used for platelet analysis by force-mode atomic force microscopy. Restriction analysis was used to investigate the carriage of G20210A polymorphism in the prothrombin gene. Flow- cytometry was applied to evaluate platelet activation. Young’s modulus of the plasma membranes of platelets derived from healthy subjects, carriers of variant A allele of prothrombin 20210G>A polymorphism (407±69 kPa) is two times higher than the one determined for noncarriers (195.4±48.7 kPa; p<0.05). The background activity of platelets measured as an interrelation of Cd41/Cd61 and CD62 by flow cytometry was also higher in carriers of variant A allele of prothrombin 20210G>A polymorphism (5.0%) than in non-carriers (1.3%). Platelets isolated from healthy carriers of variant A allele of prothrombin 20210G>A polymorphism exhibited a higher level of activity and a higher degree of stiffness at the stage of spreading as compared to platelets from noncarriers.