The aim of this paper is to give an overview of novel swine non-foodborne zoonotic diseases that have been prominent in the last decade in swine industry. The number of swine present worldwide and the large percentage of population that consume pork, swine represent significant reservoir of potential zoonoses. Numerous of human cases of swine non-foodborne zoonoses were reported all over the world. Although much progress is made to control swine non-foodborne zoonoses, we must remain vigilant to identified and control novel swine emerging zoonoses
The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012) analyses of the sow productivity data in small (<200 sows, n=4) and large (200-1000 sows, n=5) commercial pig farms. The data was statistically evaluated and compared with the known literature. Sows productivity was greater on the small farms compared to the large ones. The small farms had larger litter per sow (PBL), more pigs born alive (PBA), higher weaning weight (WW) and more pigs weaned per sow per litter (PWSL) than the large ones (p<0.001). Small farms also had greater farrowing rate (FR) (p<0.01). Higher replacement rate (RR), lower average parity (AP), greater number of litters per sow per year (LSY) and higher sow death rate (SDR) were observed in large farms (p<0.001). The large farms also had less non-productive days (NPD) than the small farms (p<0.001). Different intensity of correlations also were observed for several productive parameters among the farm groups. The data obtained in this study show that sow productivity on Macedonian pig farms is lower than in EU countries. Small herds are more efficient than the large herds. Despite all limitations, our study provides information for veterinarians regarding reproductive parameters of sows and their interrelationships on Macedonian pig farms. Further investigation should be made in order to identify whether specific management factors have effect on the productivity of the breeding herd.
Several reports indicated that a large proportion of dairy cows have not resumed cyclicity until day 60 after calving. These cows are traditionally classified as non-cycling (anoestrous or anovular cows). Static ovaries (SO, lack of luteal tissue and follicles >8 mm, and progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL) could be a possible underlying reason that contributes to a non-cycling status. Although SO affects both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows, PP cows are more prone to be non-cycling than MP. Therefore, this study aims to compare the metabolic profiles and hormonal status between non-cycling PP and MP cows diagnosed with SO. One hundred and twenty one animals that did not express signs of oestrus until day 60 postpartum were grouped by parity (PP, n=58 and MP, n=63), then blood sampled and examined using transrectal ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected before the ultrasonographic examination. Out of those, 42 PP (72.4%) and 28 MP (44.4%) were diagnosed as non-cycling (bearing SO). Serum concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein and albumin did not differ between parity groups. The glucose concentrations in PP cows (1.43 ± 0.59 mmol/L) and MP cows (1.69 ± 0.71 mmol/L) did not differ, however, they were less than the normal physiological concentration. In addition, no differences were detected between parity groups for concentrations of NEFA, β-HBA, progesterone and estradiol. In summary, we concluded that non-cycling PP and MP cows bearing SO have similar hormonal status and metabolic profiles.
Postpartum anestrus is a physiological phenomenon in high-producing dairy cows. Static ovaries have been related as major contributors for its occurrence causing a significant reproductive problem to the dairy industry. Different treatment methods have been employed with inconsistent rate of success in initiation of cyclicity, requiring further investigations in order to achieve satisfactory results. The aim of the present study was to compare the ovarian response in cows diagnosed with static ovaries, more than 60 days postpartum using two different hormonal treatment (GnRH and eCG) methods. A total of 58 acyclic cows (no CL, follicles<8mm, P4<0.5ng/mL) were randomly divided into three groups: GnRH (Group 1, n=23), eCG (Group 2, n=23) and Controls (n=12), and allocated thereafter, into subgroups according to the applied doses of GnRH (100μg or 250μg); eCG (750 IU or 1000 IU) whilst control group cows were left untreated. Daily follicular growth rate and treatment respond interval were estimated based on repeated ultrasound examinations. Blood serum P4 sampling was done on d -7, d-0 (start of the experiment) and on d 7 after ovulation. Resumption of cyclic activity occurred in 55.17% (32/58) of the treated cows, 56.52% in Group 1; 60.86% in Group 2 and 41.66% in the control group. Overall, the follicular growth rate was similar between the trials group and significant with regard to the cows in the control group (p<0.05). eCG or GnRH treated cows responded significantly faster 6.85±0.2 and 7.84±0.2 days, respectively, in comparison to the control group cows (17±0.7 days, p<0.001). Treatment with a single dose of GnRH or eCG caused resumption of follicular growth and ovulation following luteogenesis (forming CL) without significant changes in P4 concentrations on day 7 after ovulation (p>0.05). Cows in Group 2 had significantly higher incidence of multiple ovulations than cows in Group 1 (p<0.05). The eCG treatment resulted in a faster response and higher ovulation rate compared to GnRH treatment. In conclusion, both treatments have shown acceptable results in resumption of cyclicity in dairy cows with static ovaries.
Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality, if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples). Aged female patients (12 - 13 years) are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumours have never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma) were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumours is elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.
Motility patterns of spermatozoa are an indicator of their fertilizing capacity. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has been reported to induce positive effects on the biological quality of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSH addition to semen extender based on the following kinetic parameters: continuous line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross frequency (BCF), total motility (tMOT) and progressive motility (pMOT), and to appoint them as indicators of its presence. A soybean-based extender was used for dilution of the semen samples, fractioned in two parts, one containing GSH (5 mMol/ml) and second without GSH. The ejaculates (n=48) were collected from two rams (January - May, 2013) which were classified in two groups according to the used extender: Group 1 (with GSH, n=24) and Group 2 (without GSH, n=24), and then frozen in liquid nitrogen on -196°C degrees in a programmable freezer. Assessment of the samples has been performed post-thawing (30 sec. at 37°C) on CASA equipment, acquiring kinetic parameters. Results showed that only VSL and BCF have a statistically significant difference between group1 and group 2 (102.98±15.13 vs. 88.47±20.63, t=2.77, p<0.01 and 32.01±2.68 vs. 89.47±2.92, t=3.13, p<0.01, respectively). The summary of the investigation concludes that none of the kinetic parameters could be appointed as indicators that confer the positive effect of GSH as an additive to soy-bean semen extender.
Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a) the current status of swine AI in the world, (b) significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c) the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in vitro sperm storage, (d) the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e) how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f) how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.
The aim of this study is to compare the results from the histopathology and the immunohistochemical method in the diagnostic of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in pigs. The circovirus infection is a pig disease that is caused by a small, spherical, nonenveloped virus with a single stranded DNA genome which is spread throughout the pig industry worldwide. The circovirus is the etiological agent of a several pig diseases which today are thought to be the cause of the greatest economical loses in pig production. The most important of these diseases is the PMWS (post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome). In this article we have performed an investigation of four farms on which there had been a previous clinical diagnosis of the Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The examination was performed on thirty pigs from these farms, from two to five months old, which had the most severe symptoms of the disease. Necropsy, histopathology and immunohistochemical diagnostic methods were performed. The most significant necropsy findings were the enlarged lymph nodes (especially the inguinal, mediasinal and the mesenteric lymph nodes). The main histopathological changes were located in the lymphatic organs presented by B and T lymphocyte depletion and increase in the number of the macrophages. PCV2 antigen and nucleic acid were detected in almost all of the examined tissues. The examination showed that the histopathological and immunohistochemical methods provide complementary results in diagnosing PCV2 in pigs.
The objectives of the present study were to examine the fatty acid (FA) profiles in serum and in the follicular fluid (FF) and the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid level (PUFA) and follicular growth dynamics following induced luteolysis in dairy cows. A total of 29 dairy cows (CL>25mm, follicle≈15mm) at d0 (start of the experiment) were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for FF collection from the largest follicle and were injected with 500 μg of cloprostenol. The cows were subdivided into Group A1 (n=11) and Group A2 (n=8) resuming follicular growth either from a secondary follicle less than or larger than 8.5mm, respectively, present at the moment of aspiration and Group A0 (n=10) not resuming follicular growth. Follicular development was monitored daily by ultrasonography until the next dominant follicle reached ≈15mm and was subsequently punctured in Group A1 and A2 (d1). Serum and FF samples for FA determination were taken at d0 from all cows and at d1 in Group A1 and A2. No differences were observed between the FA profile in serum nor in FF between sampling days. Regarding the PUFA levels, the serum linoleic acid (C18:2n6) levels at d0 and d1 were significantly higher than in FF, while alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n3) was lower in the serum than in FF, both at d0 and d1. At d0, a tendency for negative correlation between serum and the FF C18:2n6 with subsequent daily follicular growth rate was observed, while, at d1 there was a strong negative correlation between the serum C18:2n6 and daily growth rate (r=−0.71; p=0.0006). The present study revealed similarities of the FA profiles in the serum and in the FF and association between serum and FF PUFA content with the follicular dynamics after induced luteolysis.
The present study aimed to evaluate whether the induction and the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (CL) after AI might increase the pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in heat stressed dairy cows. Starting at d 50±3 post-partum, 113 lactating Holstein cows from one commercial herd during summer were scored for body condition, blood sampled and examined by ultrasound. Those bearing a CL>25mm and progesterone (P4) level>2ng/mL were synchronized using a double PGF2α injection given 12 h apart and AI-ed at detected estrus. In total 18 cows, there were not any signs of estrus (n=10) nor a P4 level <2ng/mL at the time of enrolment (n=8) and therefore they were excluded from the study, leading to 95 cows finally enrolled.. At d5 post-AI, cows were randomly allocated into 2 groups: control group (CON, n=45) without any additional treatment, and treatment group (GnRH, n=50), treated with 0.008 mg Buserelin – a GnRH agonist. Blood sampling and ultrasound examination were done at d5, d14 and at d21 after AI, whereas the pregnancy diagnosis was done at d21 and d30 after AI. Average daily temperature and relative humidity values were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI). The average THI during the experiment was 79.5±0.6. At d5, no differences were observed neither between the number of the CL nor between the P4 level in both groups. At d14 and d21, 82% of the GnRH-treated cows had more than one CL versus 0% of the CON cows. Both at d14 and 21, GnRH-treated cows had higher P4 levels compared to the CON cows (p<0.05). In addition, P/AI were higher in the GnRH group than in the CON group (65% vs. 48.3%, p<0.05), whereas late embryonic losses were higher in CON in comparison to GnRH cows (10.6 vs. 4%, respectively). The BCS at the moment of insemination did not affect P/AI (p>0.05). In conclusion, the induction of an accessory CL at d 5 after AI might increase P/AI in heat stressed dairy cows.