Observer-based fault-tolerant control against sensor failures for fuzzy systems with time delays
This paper addresses the problems of robust fault estimation and fault-tolerant control for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems with time delays and unknown sensor faults. A fuzzy augmented state and fault observer is designed to achieve the system state and sensor fault estimates simultaneously. Furthermore, based on the information of on-line fault estimates, an observer-based dynamic output feedback fault-tolerant controller is developed to compensate for the effect of faults by stabilizing the resulting closed-loop system. Sufficient conditions for the existence of both a state observer and a fault-tolerant controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Abstract The diallel mating designs have been extensively employed to gain genetic information by crop and tree breeders, but analysis of diallel data faces some challenges because the same parent acts both male and female roles. Theoretically, little attention was paid to the statistical inference and hypothesis testing for a fixed diallel linear model. In this paper we provide a uniform solution to any fixed diallel linear model with matrix expression based on the theory of restricted linear models. We derive formulae for estimating diallel parameters and their standard errors, and obtain uniform statistics for hypothesis testing of parameters, factors and differences between general combining abilities (GCA) or specific combining abilities (SCA). To put the result into practice, we have developed a Windows® software program “GSCA” for analyzing a flexible diallel linear model that could contain the GCA, SCA, reciprocal, block and environment effects as well as interaction effects such as GCA by environment. GSCA can perform analyses not only for Griffing’s four types of diallel crosses but also for more complicated diallel crosses whether the data structure is balanced or unbalanced. A real example is given to illustrate the convenience, flexibility and power of our software for diallel analysis.
Introduction: A real-time RT-PCR method for identification and quantification of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains in China was developed.
Material and Methods: Based on the conserved sequence of the PEDV nucleocapsid (N) gene, a primer pair and probe were designed to establish a TaqMan-MGB real-time RT-PCR assay for quantitative detection of the virus. The sequence was cloned into the pMD18-T vector and a series of diluted recombinant plasmids were used to generate a standard curve with an R2 value of 0.999.
Results: The developed quantitative PCR assay detected viral titres as low as 0.1 TCID50 with high specificity and no cross-reaction with other porcine viruses (PoRV, TGEV, PRRSV, or CSFV). The intra-batch and inter-batch coefficients of variation were both less than 1%, which indicated good reproducibility. Thirty clinical diarrhoea samples obtained from pigs in Shanghai and Fujian were analysed using this quantitative PCR assay. Out of these samples, 93.3% were found to be PEDV positive.
Conclusion: This approach is suitable for clinical sample identification and pathogenesis studies.
Objective To explore whether age, disease severity, cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.
Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.
Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients (P < 0.01). The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells. Additionally, the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.
Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods, which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.
Objective To analyze the clinical and laboratory features of patients with mild and severe HFMD to identify early predictive or diagnostic markers for severe cases.
Methods Samples of feces, nasopharyngeal-swab specimens, peripheral blood, serum and cerebral spinal fluid were collected. Postmortem pathological examination was conducted on 2 dead patients with complication due to neurogenic pulmonary edema. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR), culture and isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) were performed to detect EV71 infection. Both univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to identify factors associated with severe cases.
Results EV71 was mainly responsible for HFMD. In this study, 5 isolated EV71 strains belonged to C4 gene subtype. Compared with mild patients, EV71-RNA detection rate was higher and CoxA16 detection rate was lower among severe patients (P < 0.01). Inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung, cardiac and liver tissues were mild by postmortem pathological examination. It was found that body temperature, vomitting, limb tremor, neutrophil, blood glucose and EV71 infection were significantly related to the severe cases by univariate logistic analysis. However, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, only vomiting (OR 16.1, CI 2.3-110.5, P < 0.01) and limb tremor (OR 117.6, CI 13.8-1004.5, P < 0.01) were significantly and independently correlated with the severe cases.
Conclusions EV71 was mainly responsible for HFMD, particularly for severe cases. Vomiting and limb tremor were predictive markers for severe cases.
In this study, the mean temperature of June to July was reconstructed for the period of 1880 to 2014 by using the Larix gmelinii tree-ring width data for the Mangui region in the northern Daxing’an Mountains, China. The reconstruction accounts for 43.6% of the variance in the temperature observed from AD 1959–2014. During the last 134 years, there were 17 warm years and 17 cold years, which accounted for 12.7% of the total reconstruction years, respectively. Cold episodes occurred throughout 1887–1898 (average value is 14.2°C), while warm episodes occurred during 1994–2014 (15.9°C). Based on this regional study, the warmer events coincided with dry periods and the colder events were consistent with wet conditions. The spatial correlation analyses between the reconstructed series and gridded temperature data revealed that the regional climatic variations were well captured by this study and the reconstruction represented a regional temperature signal for the northern Daxing’an Mountains. In addition, Multi-taper method spectral analysis revealed the existence of significant periodicities in our reconstruction. Significant spectral peaks were found at 29.7, 10.9, 2.5, and 2.2 years. The significant spatial correlations between our temperature reconstruction and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Solar activity suggested that the temperature in the Daxing’an Mountains area indicated both local-regional climate signals and global-scale climate changes.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.