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Open access

Tong Wang

Abstract

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute progressive respiratory failure caused by severe infection, trauma, shock, poisoning, inhaled harmful gas, acute pancreatitis, and pathological obstetrics. ALI and ARDS demonstrate similar pathophysiological changes. The severe stage of ALI is defined as ARDS. At present, a significant progress has been achieved in the study of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Whether or not ALI/ARDS patients can recover depends on the degree of lung injury, extra-pulmonary organ damage, original primary disease of a patient, and adequacy in supportive care. Conservative infusion strategies and protective lung ventilation reduce ARDS disability and mortality. In this study, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, lung injury, molecular mechanisms of lung repair, and conservative infusion strategies and pulmonary protective ventilation are reviewed comprehensively.

Open access

Wang Tong, Wu Jiyi, Xu He, Zhu Jinghua and Charles Munyabugingo

In the routing protocol for wireless sensor network, the cluster size is generally fixed in clustering routing algorithm for wireless sensor network, which can easily lead to the “hot spot” problem. Furthermore, the majority of routing algorithms barely consider the problem of long distance communication between adjacent cluster heads that brings high energy consumption. Therefore, this paper proposes a new cross unequal clustering routing algorithm based on the EEUC algorithm. In order to solve the defects of EEUC algorithm, this algorithm calculating of competition radius takes the node’s position and node’s remaining energy into account to make the load of cluster heads more balanced. At the same time, cluster adjacent node is applied to transport data and reduce the energy-loss of cluster heads. Simulation experiments show that, compared with LEACH and EEUC, the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the energy-loss of cluster heads and balance the energy consumption among all nodes in the network and improve the network lifetime

Open access

Tong-Sheng Wang, Xiu-Li Su, Yi-Min Mao and Yu-Xia Sun

Abstract

Background: Despite important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (APE), diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is difficult in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation.

Objective: We evaluated PE in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exacerbations of unknown origin.

Methods: Two-hundred and eight patients with COPD and severe exacerbations were studied. All patients had CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lower limb ultrasonography. Arterial blood gas measurements, D-dimers and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were recorded.

Results: The frequency of PE was 33%. The following were more common in the PE group (χ2 = 4.32-6.79, mean p < 0.05): immobilization ≥ 7 days; a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs; deep venous thrombosis; syncope; S1Q3T3 syndrome; and a decrease in PaCO2 ≥ 5 mm Hg. Plasma D-dimers and ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the PE group. Risk factors identified from logistic regression analysis were immobilization ≥ 7 days, ≥ 1 cm difference in lower limb edema, and deep venous thrombosis.

Conclusions: Overall, 33% of 208 patients had a PE, and the risk was greater in those who had been immobilized, those who had a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs, and those who had a deep venous thrombosis.

Open access

Jan Kazak, Tong Wang and Szymon Szewrański

Abstract

The current system of spatial planning in Poland does not provide an effective and efficient tool for controlling planning decisions at a level higher than local. The result is an unrealistic approach to adopting development policies. Nowadays there is strong competition among local governments to attract investors, which results in excessive designation of investment areas and, consequently, an imbalance between supply and demand on the real estate market. An extremely important factor from the point of view of local authorities is also the financial burden on government budgets related to the implementation of the provisions of previously adopted policies. An improper spatial development policy can therefore generate costs without delivering the expected results, due to the lack of demand for the offered resources.

A step in the right direction in optimizing how the spatial policy process is shaped may include conducting analyses and forecasts to support the decision-making process. Such analyses are needed both in terms of the amount of areas designed for each type of land use as well as their spatial distribution. Our considerations are focused on the second aspect. Analysis of land use transformation potential can be used in spatial management by selecting areas most where land use is most likely to change. The paper presents the simplified mechanisms of such analyses which can be adopted by the use of cellular automata. The final potential of an area is affected by variables such as the neighborhood, accessibility and suitability. As a result of the integration of these variables, it is possible to determine land use transformation potential. These considerations relate to the MOLAND (Monitoring Land Use/Cover Dynamics) research project and works on the development of the Metronamica decision support system, conducted in Western Europe.

Open access

Wang Hong, Qi-Sheng Liang, Lan-Ren Cheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Fu Wei, Wen-Tao Dai and Shi-Tong Li

Abstract

Background: Rocuronium is an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid tracheal intubation after major thermal injury and other forms of critical illness that cause denervation changes in skeletal muscle. Rocuronium may decrease the potencies of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Objectives: Examine whether potency of rocuronium changed during the first month after denervation, and investigate the effects of skeletal muscle denervation on potency of rocuronium.

Methods: The denervation mouse model was developed to create denervated individual cells from the flexor digitorum brevis of the hindfoot. The skeletal muscle cells were examined at day 0 in the innervated control and days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in the denervation group. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cells were activated with 30 M acetylcholine, alone or in combination with various concentrations of rocuronium. Currents were recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.

Results: Rocuronium reversibly inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in a dose-dependent fashion at different times after denervation. The inhibition concentration for the half-maximal responses of rocuronium increased 1.2- (p >0.05), 1.8-, 2.8-, 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold (p <0.01) at day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to that at day 0 after denervation.

Conclusion: Rocuronium dose required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects changed at different durations after skeletal muscle denervation.

Open access

Tong Wu, Guanhua Wang, Caihong Shi, Jinghan Li, Na Zhao, Zihao Dong, Weisan Pan and Xiangrong Zhang

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to prepare a mosapride citrate-resin (Amberlite® IRP 88) complex and orally fast-disintegrating tablets of the resin complex. The resinate complex of mosapride-Amberlite® IRP 88, mass ratio 2:1, was prepared in an ethanol-water solution. The effects of alcohol concentration, temperature, and pH of the solution on complex formation were evaluated. The complex physicochemical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by direct compression and were optimized using the response surface method. Optimized orally fast-disintegrating tablets disintegrated within 18 s. The pH dependence of mosapride release from the tablet decreased drug dissolution in simulated saliva, whereas it promptly released in the pH 1.0 solution. The data reported herein clearly demonstrate that tablets containing the mosapride-Amberlite® IRP 88 complex for oral disintegration could be particularly useful for patients with swallowing difficulties.

Open access

Qiang Zhang, Haijian Wang and Tong Guo

Abstract

To study the influence of the random load on the V-lock chain ring for mining, the numerical simulation technology is used. The dynamic tension is obtained by using the dynamic model of the plough. The life and damage nephograms are obtained by using ANSYS Workbench. The analysis results show that the short fatigue life region of the V-lock chain ring for mining is mainly concentrated on the transition region between the medial straight edge and arc, and the fatigue damage of the link chain on the side of the motion direction of the plow head is larger than that on the other side. This link chain has strong anti-fatigue performance.

Open access

Chuan-Zhen Zhao, Tong Wei, Xiao-Dong Sun, Sha-Sha Wang and Ke-Qing Lu

Abstract

A model is developed to describe the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for the dilute nitride GaNxAs1–x. It is found that the sublinear pressure dependence of E is due to the coupling interaction between E+ and E. We have also found that GaNxAs1−x needs much larger pressure than GaAs to realize the transition from direct to indirect band gap. It is due to two factors. One is the coupling interaction between the E+ and E. The other is that the energy difference between the X conduction band minimum (CBM) and the G CBM in GaNxAs1−x is larger than that in GaAs. In addition, we explain the phenomenon that the energy difference between the X CBM and the G CBM in GaNxAs1−x is larger than that in GaAs. It is due to the impurity-host interaction.

Open access

Yi-Xuan Hou, Chun Xie, Kang Wang, Yu-Ting Zhao, Yang-Yang Xie, Hong-Yan Shi, Jian-Fei Chen, Li Feng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Xiu-Guo Hua, Cong-Li Yuan, Yan-Jun Zhou and Zhi-Biao Yang

Abstract

Introduction: A real-time RT-PCR method for identification and quantification of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains in China was developed.

Material and Methods: Based on the conserved sequence of the PEDV nucleocapsid (N) gene, a primer pair and probe were designed to establish a TaqMan-MGB real-time RT-PCR assay for quantitative detection of the virus. The sequence was cloned into the pMD18-T vector and a series of diluted recombinant plasmids were used to generate a standard curve with an R2 value of 0.999.

Results: The developed quantitative PCR assay detected viral titres as low as 0.1 TCID50 with high specificity and no cross-reaction with other porcine viruses (PoRV, TGEV, PRRSV, or CSFV). The intra-batch and inter-batch coefficients of variation were both less than 1%, which indicated good reproducibility. Thirty clinical diarrhoea samples obtained from pigs in Shanghai and Fujian were analysed using this quantitative PCR assay. Out of these samples, 93.3% were found to be PEDV positive.

Conclusion: This approach is suitable for clinical sample identification and pathogenesis studies.