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  • Author: Tomasz Zaleski x
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Recycling of Calcium-Silicate Material After Wastewater Filtration to Agriculture - Soil Condition Impact

Reactive filter materials aimed at phosphorus (P) recovery is a novel method for on-site wastewater treatment. Once the bed filter is no longer effective, the sorbent must be replaced and can then be recycled as a soil amendment to agriculture. This study investigated the short-term effects of such amendments in a field with a wheat crop in order to evaluate the risks and/or potential benefits of this disposal option. The developed product Polonite (manufactured from Opoka) was used as a model filter sorbent in the field trial. Rates corresponding to approximately 6 and 8 tons per hectare were applied. In the short-term, this amending did not affect soil physical and sorption properties. The rate of Polonite used here, as P source for wheat was irrelevant in this kind of soil. The usefulness of this disposal option of exhausted filter material is discussed.


Carbonate-rich soils are characterized by great diversity in content of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral substances in soil substrate which largely influences soil properties. The study presents the analysis results of four soil profiles located at the area of Pieniny National Park. The aim of this study was to characterize and classify the soils developed from the mixture of carbonate and carbonate-rich rock material, formerly classified as pararendzinas. It was achieved by determination of morphological, physical, and chemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition of selected carbonate-rich soils occurring in the Polish part of the Pieniny Mts. Soils were classified as typical chernozemic rendzina (P1), typical eutrophic brown soils (P2, P4), as well as typical pararendzina (P3) according to Polish Soil Classification (2011).

The parent material of studied soils P1, P2 and P4 were slope covers, with a dominant share of sandstone and minor share of limestone, whereas soil P3 was formed from variegated shale cut with multiple calcite veins. Soils were characterized by stable aggregate structure: crumby, angular blocky and subangular blocky. They were medium or strong skeletal, mostly with loam texture with great share of silt fraction. CaCO3 content in genetic horizons ranged from 0.0 to 703.0 g·kg-1. The reaction of studied soils was from weakly acidic to alkaline. Analysed soils were characterized by very high base saturation. Among determined exchangeable cations, Ca2+ ions had the biggest share in all analysed profile. High base saturation, as well as high content of calcium carbonate was accompanied by content of organic matter and percentage content of clay fraction. Taking into consideration determined chemical and physical properties, it can be found that investigated soils were influenced by not only the in-situ weathering material but also by rock material which have been transported and deposited as a result of slope processes. Furthermore, the lack or lower content of CaCO3 in surface and middle part of analysed soil profiles was most likely a result of the impoverishment of rock material during the transport on the slope.


The aim of the study was to determine soil-forming processes in soils formed from the Magura sandstones (Carpathian flysch) under wooded spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum in the Gorce Mts., southern Poland. The research focused on distribution of non-silicate forms of iron and aluminum in soil profiles. The content of pyrophosphate, oxalate, and dithionite phases of iron and aluminum in the genetic horizons of four soil profiles was measured and selected pedogenic factors were calculated. Based on the obtained results podzolization and brunification are dominant soil-forming processes in the studied soils. The brunification effect was more common in the soils under the large share of Athyrium distentifolium, whereas podzolization predominates in the soils where Vaccinium myrtillus prevails in forest floor. Studied soils were classified as Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Loamic, Humic), Dystric Cambisol (Siltic, Humic) and Skeletic Folic Albic Podzol (Arenic).


The primary objective of this study was to characterise the edaphic conditions of forest areas in the Pieniny National Park (PNP), and to describe the dependencies between properties of forest soils and types of forest plant communities. The “Soil Trophic Index” (SIGg) for mountainous areas was applied. The evaluation of the trophism for 74 forest monitoring employed the soil trophic index for mountainous areas SIGg or SIGgo. Plant communities in the forest monitoring areas were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet’s phytosociological method. Soils of PNP present in the forest monitoring areas were mostly classified as eutrophic brown soils (72.9%), rendzinas (10.8%), brown rendzinas (5.41%), and rubble initial soils (5.41%). Pararendzinas, dystrophic brown soils, and gley soils were less common (total below 5.5%). In the forest monitoring areas of PNP, eutrophic soils predominate over mesotrophic soils. High SIGg index of the soils is caused by high values of acidity and nitrogen content. The Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum and thermophilic beech forest Carici albae-Fagetum associations are characterised by high naturalness and compatibility of theoretical habitats. The soils of the Carpathian fir forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum abietetosum subcommunity is characterised by a higher share of silt and clay particles and lower acidity as compared to the Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum typicum subcommunity. The soils of the forest monitoring areas in PNP stand out in terms of their fertility against forest soils in other mountainous areas in Poland.