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  • Author: Tomasz Zając x
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (p<0.001) increase (10%) in total distance during the ramp test protocol (the speed was increased linearly by 1 km/h per 1min until volitional exhaustion), as well as increased (p<0.01) absolute (4.5%) and relative (6.2%) maximal workload (WRmax). Also, the absolute and relative values of VO2max in this group increased significantly (p<0.001) by 6.5% and 7.8%. Significant, yet minor changes were also observed in the group C, where training in normoxia caused an increase (p<0.05) in relative values of WRmax by 2.8%, as well as an increase (p<0.05) in the absolute (1.3%) and relative (2.1%) values of VO2max. This data suggest that an intermittent hypoxic training protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 x 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.



Health, religious, and commercial aspects justify the need for meat species identification. The lack of officially approved methods prompts the undertaking of research on validation of isoelectric focusing of proteins (IEF) for official purposes.

Material and Methods

Samples were prepared from pigs (Sus scrofa ferus domestica), cattle (Bos taurus), and poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus). Meat mixtures were made by blending 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.2% meat of other species. Samples were examined on ultrathin polyacrylamide gels with pH 3–9 gradient.


The results of the study confirmed the stable and reproducible pattern of meat protein bands. The detection limit of raw meat admixtures from pigs, cattle, and poultry mostly ranged from 2% down to 0.2% (0.2% for poultry). However, the IEF method can be used to detect the addition of pig meat to bovine meat in an amount higher than 3%. At the significant mixture level (i.e at least 5% addition of meat of another species) IEF proves itself with 100% specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy.


The achieved detection limits provide a basis for recommending the IEF method for routine tests in laboratories detecting the species origin of meat.

The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of incremental and continuous exercise on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C), as well as to investigate whether increased cardiac dimensions in cyclists were related to changes in these hormones and cardiac biomarkers. The study included 30 elite cyclists divided into two groups, i.e., athletes with left ventricle hypertrophy (a LVH group), and a control group (CG) without LVH. The study protocol included performance of a standard incremental exercise (IncEx) test to measure athletes’ maximum power (Pmax), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and lactate threshold (LAT). The IncEx test results were then used to determine the intensity of the continuous exercise (ConEx) test which was performed after the 1-week washout period. Cyclists with LVH and without LVH did not differ in resting hormone concentrations and cardiac biomarkers levels. There was a significant effect of exercise on serum IGF-1 levels (p < 0.05) in the LVH group and a combined effect of the type of exercise and LVH on IGF-1 (p < 0.05). Cyclists with LVH demonstrated higher post exercise T levels recorded in response to exercise compared to the CG (p < 0.01). Significantly higher serum T levels were observed in response to ConEx compared to IncEx in the LVH group and the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In the LVH group, a significant positive correlation between the post-exercise T/C ratio and left ventricular mass index was observed (r = 0.98, p < 0.01). There were no effects of heart hypertrophy on cardiac standard biomarkers. Incremental and continuous exercise caused a marked increase in steroid hormone concentrations and moderate strengthening of insulin growth factors effects. Regular incremental exercise seems to induce beneficial cardiac adaptations via significant increases in the concentration of anabolic factors compared to the same training mode yet with constant exercise intensity.


The aim of the study was to estimate the current prevalence of E. multilocularis in selected populations of red foxes in Poland and to evaluate the changes in prevalence of this parasite by comparison with the results obtained in the same area during earlier surveillance. The investigations were performed in the area of four Polish provinces: 2 eastern/south-eastern (Lubelskie and Podkarpackie) and 2 south-western (Śląskie and Opolskie). Five hundred red foxes coming from the investigated areas were examined between 2013 and 2014 to estimate the current situation in selected provinces. Moreover, 550 red foxes from the same areas examined between 2007 and 2013 were used for comparison of differences in E. multilocularis prevalences in time. Intestines were examined with the use of the sedimentation and counting technique. Among 500 foxes examined in the current study, 118 were positive for E. multilocularis. There were differences in prevalence between individual provinces: Podkarpackie Province - 54.6%, Lubelskie Province - 18.9%, Śląskie Province - 11.7%, and Opolskie Province - 3.9%. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in most cases there were no differences in prevalence between the current results and the results from previous studies. Only in Opolskie Province was a statistically significant increase observed between 2010 and 2014. A stable degree of infection in the region with high prevalence of this parasite was demonstrated. However, a significant increase in the region with very low prevalence of E. multilocularis points out the necessity to monitor this infection during the coming years to control the progress of the disease


The main goal of this study was to present a review of current knowledge and modern trends in periodization of the training process in team sports. The research objectives were: an analysis of various aspects of periodization of the annual training cycle for elite athletes practicing team sport games, an attempt to determine both the examined and unexamined issues related with periodization of training as well as to indicate directions for further research, and finally, presentation of different training loads and competitions in micro-, meso- and macrocycles. The research consisted of the analysis and generalization of the bibliography, methods of monitoring training and competition loads of the Polish national U17 female soccer team in the seasons 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, as well as of the female basketball division one club in the season 2014/2015. Findings of the present study indicate resolved as well as unresolved aspects of annual training cycle periodization in team sport games and provide information on the types of training and competitive workload planning in micro-, meso- and macrocycles.


The purpose of the study was to examine how various playing positions affected the number of (and percentage breakdowns for) physical and technical activities of soccer players in the Germany’s Bundesliga. A further objective was to identify and present features distinguishing between the activities of players within the Defender, Midfielder and Forward formations. The study sample comprised 4426 individual match observations of 473 soccer players competing in the Bundesliga during the 2016/2017 domestic season. Data from the Impire AG motion analysis system, and the so-called ”heat maps” it supplies, revealed areas in which players spent most time during a match, with 22 different playing positions on the pitch identified in consequence. Players in the formation comprising Defenders did not differ significantly in relation to the number of accelerations, the number of shots or the percentage of duels won. Furthermore, there were no significant differences among Midfielders in regard to total distance covered, mean running speed, the number of accelerations, the number of duels and the percentage of duels won. Likewise, Forwards did not differ in distances covered at ≥24 km/h, average running speed, the number of sprints, the number of shots, the proportion of on-target passes, the number of duels, or the percentage share of duels won. Irrespective of the formation or position on the pitch, today’s game of soccer also pays great importance to the number of accelerations, as well as the number of duels engaged in, and their effectiveness.


Introduction. Having possession of the ball makes it possible for the players of a team to undertake a greater number of actions that can help the team win the match. The aim of the current study was to determine the number and completion rate of passes made from different distances in relation to percentage ball possession and the outcome of the match in the group stage of the FIFA World Cup held in Brazil in 2014. Material and methods. The study included 32 teams who participated in the final tournament. The performance of 266 players (682 observations) who played 48 matches in the group stage was examined. Only players who took part in the entire match were included in the research, and goal-keepers were excluded. The data used in the study, which had been recorded by means of the Castrol Performance Index system, were obtained from the FIFA official website. The total number of passes and the percentage of completed passes were analysed, which were classified as short, medium, and long, in relation to the team’s percentage possession of the ball (over and below 50%) and the outcome of the match (win, loss, or draw). Results. Out of the three types of passes which were examined in the study, teams playing in the World Cup in Brazil most often made medium passes. The number of these passes was the highest in matches won. These matches were also characterised by a significantly higher percentage of completed long passes. Conclusions. Players from teams who were in possession of the ball more than 50% of the time performed a higher number of all types of passes, regardless of the outcome of the match. The completion rate for these players was significantly higher only for short and medium passes.


The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m). The samples were examined for the presence of (oo)cysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6%) and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%). Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oo)cysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1%) whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%). Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates) and B (8 isolates). In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oo)cysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for implementation of appropriate preventive measures to protect tourists’ health.


Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

Material and Methods: The Trichinella larvae were identified by digestion method. For species identification of the larvae, multiplex PCR was used according to the European Reference Laboratory for Parasites Multiplex PCR protocol. The results were confirmed by molecular amplification of 5S rDNA gene and sequence analysis.

Results: Prevalence of 0.54% Trichinella–positive wild boars in the West Pomeranian Province was recorded. Examination of the larvae showed the occurrence of T. spiralis in 79 %, T. britovi in 16.5 %, mixed infection with T. spiralis/T. britovi in 3.5%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1.0% of the boars.

Conclusion: This is the first record of wild boar infected with non-encapsulated larvae of T. pseudospiralis in Poland. The species is very difficult to determine, especially using trichinoscopic method. The discovery of the larvae in the animals which may be intended for human consumption confirms that digestion technique should be the only method used for the inspection of meat, especially that from wild boars..